• Different kinds of questions suggest different kinds of scientific investigations.

Some investigations involve observing and describing objects, organisms, or events; some involve collecting specimens; some involve experiments; some involve seeking more information; some involve discovery of new objects and phenomena; and some involve making models.

• Current scientific knowledge and understanding guide scientific investigations.

Different scientific domains employ different methods, core theories, and standards to advance scientific knowledge and understanding.

• Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry.


• Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations.


• Scientific explanations emphasize evidence, have logically consistent arguments, and use scientific principles, models, and theories.

The scientific community accepts and uses such explanations until displaced by better scientific ones. When such displacement occurs, science advances.

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