questions about it. No doubt many other people had also noticed the dead trees, but they either did not wonder about the cause of death or were not in a position to answer the question. Using his knowledge of geology and what he learned about trees and their habitats, the geologist made connections between the dead trees and other features of the environment, such as the coastal location. Those questions guided his investigation, which included the use of carbon 14 methods to date the dead trees and the gathering of available knowledge about the geology of the region. He developed an explanation for the death of the trees based on this preliminary evidence and gathered more evidence to test his explanation. He then published articles in which he discussed the relationship between the evidence he accumulated and the explanation he proposed. Later, a scientist in another part of the world read the publications and, because

Geologist’s report of his findings published in the journal Nature

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