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Advanced Engineering Environments Achieving the Vision Phase 1 Committee on Advanced Engineering Environments Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study was supported by Contract No. NASW-4938 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number: 0-309-06541-0 Available in limited supply from: Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, HA 292, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418. (202) 334-2855 Additional copies available for sale from: National Academy Press , 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. 1-800-624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan area). http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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COMMITTEE ON ADVANCED ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTS ROBERT E. DEEMER, chair, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colorado TORA K. BIKSON, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California ROBERT A. DAVIS, The Boeing Company (retired), Seattle, Washington RICHARD T. KOUZES, West Virginia University, Morgantown R. BOWEN LOFTIN, University of Houston, Houston, Texas JAMES MANISCALCO, TRW Engineering Systems, Cleveland, Ohio ROBERT J. SANTORO, Pennsylvania State University, University Park DANIEL P. SCHRAGE, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ALLAN SHERMAN, Lockheed Martin, Bethesda, Maryland JOHN SULLIVAN, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana GORDON WILLIS, Ford Motor Company, Livonia, Michigan MICHAEL J. ZYDA, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California ASEB Liaison DIANNE S. WILEY, Northrop Grumman, Pico Rivera, California Staff ALAN ANGLEMAN, Study Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board CAROL ARENBERG, Editor, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems ALAN INOUYE, Program Officer, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board GEORGE LEVIN, Director, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board JERRY SHEEHAN, Senior Program Officer, Computer Science and Telecommunications Board MARVIN WEEKS, Administrative Assistant, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board TOM WEIMER, Director, NAE Program Office
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AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ENGINEERING BOARD WILLIAM W. HOOVER, chair, U.S. Air Force (retired), Williamsburg, Virginia A. DWIGHT ABBOTT, Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, California RUZENA BAJSCY, NAE, IOM, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia AARON COHEN, NAE, Texas A&M University, College Station RAYMOND S. COLLADAY, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, Colorado DONALD C. FRASER, NAE, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts JOSEPH FULLER, JR., Futron Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland ROBERT C. GOETZ, Lockheed Martin Skunk Works, Palmdale, California RICHARD GOLASZEWSKI, GRA Inc., Jenkintown, Pennsylvania JAMES M. GUYETTE, Rolls-Royce North American, Reston, Virginia FREDERICK HAUCK, AXA Space, Bethesda, Maryland BENJAMIN HUBERMAN, Huberman Consulting Group, Washington, D.C. JOHN K. LAUBER, Airbus Service Company, Miami Springs, Florida DAVA J. NEWMAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge JAMES G. O'CONNOR, NAE, Pratt & Whitney (retired), Coventry, Connecticut GEORGE SPRINGER, NAE, Stanford University, Stanford, California KATHRYN C. THORNTON, University of Virginia, Charlottesville DIANNE S. WILEY, Northrop Grumman, Pico Rivera, California RAY A. WILLIAMSON, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. Staff GEORGE LEVIN, Director
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Preface Economic pressures in the global economy are forcing aerospace and other high-technology industries to improve engineering performance in order to remain competitive. These improvements include faster insertion of new technologies, lower design and development costs, and shorter development times for new products. One way to help realize improvements in project design and management on a global scale is through the development and application of advanced engineering environments (AEEs). AEEs would incorporate advanced computational, communications, and networking facilities and tools to create integrated virtual and distributed computer-based environments linking researchers, technologists, designers, manufacturers, suppliers, and customers. Significant progress has been made during the last 15 years in the application of computer-aided design, engineering, and manufacturing systems. Building on that success, government, industry, and academia now have a historic opportunity to develop and deploy AEE technologies and systems. For example, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has initiated both near-term and far-term projects related to AEEs. As part of these efforts, NASA's Chief Engineer and Chief Technologist requested that the National Research Council and the National Academy of Engineering conduct a two-phase study to assess the current and future national context within which NASA's plans must fit (see Appendix A). The Advanced Engineering Environments Committee was appointed to carry out this task (see Appendix B). The results of Phase 1, which focused on the near term (the next 5 years), are documented in this report. The results of Phase 2, which will focus on the far term (5 to 15 years), will be documented in the Phase 2 report. As described herein, the committee validated that AEEs could contribute to important objectives related to the development of complex new systems, products, and missions. However, advancing the state of the art enough to realize these objectives requires a long-term effort and must overcome a number of significant technical and cultural barriers. Much remains to be done in the near term, as well, both to lay the foundation for long-term success and to achieve near-term improvements in areas where technology has matured enough to improve the effectiveness of current practices. This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the authors and the National Research Council in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: George Gleghorn, TRW Space and Technology Group (retired) Joel Greenberg, Princeton Synergetics, Inc. George Hazelrigg, National Science Foundation Larry Howell, General Motors Research and Development Center Robert Naka, CERA, Inc. Henry Pohl, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) Bruce Webster, Simmetrix, Inc. While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the National Research Council. The committee also wishes to thank everyone else who supported this study, especially those who took the time to participate in committee meetings (see Appendix C). ROBERT E. DEEMER, CHAIRMAN ADVANCED ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTS COMMITTEE
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Contents Executive Summary 1 1 Introduction 8 Defining an Advanced Engineering Environment 8 Study Overview 10 Organization of the Report 10 Reference 10 2 Current Practices 11 Overview 11 Ford 12 Boeing Commercial Airplane Group 13 Deneb Robotics 13 National Aeronautics and Space Administration 14 U.S. Department of Defense 15 National Science Foundation 16 U.S. Department of Energy 17 Interorganizational Studies 17 Observations on the Current State of the Art 18 References 19 3 Requirements and Alternatives 20 Introduction 20 Top-Level Objectives, Benefits, and Requirements 20 Component-Level Requirements 22 Alternate Approaches 23 4 Barriers 29 Introduction 29 Integration of Tools, Systems, and Data 29 Information Management 31 Culture, Management, and Economics 32 Education and Training 32
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5 A Historic Opportunity Findings and Recommendations 34 Requirements and Benefits 35 Barriers 35 Organizational Roles 38 Appendices AStatement of Task 41 BBiographical Sketches of Committee Members 43 CParticipants in Committee Meetings 46 Acronyms 48
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Tables, Figures, and Boxes Tables ES-1 AEE System Components and Characteristics 1 ES-2 Barriers to Achieving the AEE Vision 5 1-1 AEE System Components and Characteristics 10 2-1 Five-Year Objectives and Associated Metrics for Each Element of NASA's ISE Functional Initiative 15 2-2 Implementations of Collaborative Environments for Various Scientific and Engineering Purposes 17 2-3 Imperatives from the Next-Generation Manufacturing Project 18 3-1 AEE System Components and Characteristics 22 3-2 Survey of AEE Requirements 24 3-3 Common Themes 26 3-4 Estimated Effectiveness of Alternative Approaches 28 4-1 Barriers to Achieving the AEE Vision 30 Figures ES-1 Road map for achieving the AEE vision 3 3-1 Approaches for improving engineering processes 26 Box 3-1 Opportunities for NASA-Industry-Academia Partnerships 27
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