the agribusiness and food sectors. Some producers of fruits and vegetables have begun to establish their own brand names, and producers of grains are being paid according to the quality of their products. More products are designed to meet specifications of retailers, and production and marketing efforts are coordinated with some of the giant chains (especially in fruits and vegetables). Industrialization is important in the livestock sector, especially in poultry. Such companies as Tyson Foods, Inc. have increased the efficiency of processing and the array of poultry products. Similar attempts are now being made to industrialize the production of swine.
Two arrangements that typify much of industrialized farming are vertical integration (in which one organization is responsible for a variety of activities such as farming, processing, shipping, and marketing) and contracting (in which the marketers and processors of agricultural commodities provide farmers with inputs, including genetic materials and guidance about production processes and specification of the final product). With contracting and vertical integration, some of the functions of traditional farmers are changing. People who market the final products are now making many of the decisions regarding input and chemical use. Processors and marketers may also be held liable for some of the environmental side effects of production.
Globalization and the emergence of international governing organizations with decision-making power over nations are accompanied by processes that move in the opposite direction. National governments give much decision-making and economic power to regional and state governments, and the power that was concentrated in national governments is distributed among a wide array of organizations and infrastructure. The power can be specialized and reflect various degrees of geographic focus. Decentralization and privatization have many consequences, which can affect the research, development, and practice of pest control.
One such consequence is the transfer of technology from the public to the private sector. University knowledge has been transferred to the private sector for many years and has played an important role in the development of industries. For example, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has had an office of technology transfer for about 50 years, and graduates and professors at MIT (and many other universities) have developed important industries and economic projects. Over the last 20 years, the magnitude of technology transfer from the public to the private sector has changed drastically. Nearly 100 offices of technology transfer have emerged, and collectively they represent almost every major univer