In the United States, several IPM programs have identifiable logos, trademarks, and guidelines. They are based on a point system to measure attainment of certain goals. Programs are certified, and only participants can use the logo. Based in the University of Massachusetts, Partners with Nature is an information-based-program for vegetables (cole crops, peppers, potatoes, pumpkins, and sweet corn). In 1998, 50 growers were participating. The growers receive recognition for IPM-based efforts and attain points by engaging in various activities (the point system does not focus on reducing any specific products).
Wegman's Food Markets and growers—including the New York State Berry Growers Association, the Eden Valley Growers, and Comstock Michigan Fruit—have partnered with Cornell University in an educational IPM outreach program. The partners have developed IPM labeling programs for corn, beets, cabbage, carrots, and peas, mainly for the frozen-food markets. Gower compliance with IPM practices is verified jointly by Comstock and Wegman. The point system is not based on specific products used, but rather on pest monitoring and pest management. The requirements are minimal compared with California grower practices; most California growers are already using practices that exceed these requirements.
Some 250 apple, pear, and cherry growers in Washington and British Columbia participate in Responsible Choice (Kane 1999). The program ranks chemicals and includes mating disruption as a pest-management practice. Overall, participating growers use more environmentally friendly products than nonparticipating growers. The weakness in the program is that all growers in the program get the label “Responsible Choice” even if they have failed to meet point goals for pesticide reduction.
Wisconsin potato and vegetable growers have partnered with World Wildlife Fund in an eco-labelling effort. This program has an overall pesticide-reduction goal involving carcinogens, acutely toxic compounds, endocrine disrupters, and compounds affecting nontarget insects; it deals with water quality, soil quality, and resistance management. A 15% reduction in the target pesticides was achieved from 1995 to 1997; there has been a 30% reduction over the last 5 years (Mike Carter, director of government and grower relations, Wisconsin Potato and Vegetable Growers Association, July 1, 1999, personal communication).
In California, Mary Bianchi, farm adviser, works with wine-grape growers from central coast vineyards in Monterey and Santa Barbara counties. Team membership represents 40,000 of a total of 80,000 acres in Monterey County. The program uses a point system similar to that of the