Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.
OCR for page 144
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture 4 Technological and Biological Changes and the Future of Pest Management As a biological process, the agricultural enterprise is profoundly affected by the physiological, biochemical, ecological, and genetic attributes of the organisms involved. Anthropogenic activities within and beyond the agricultural enterprise have the potential to affect agriculture through their effects on the biology of organisms, including those in production (crops and livestock) and pests associated with them. In this chapter, we examine technological changes that have introduced new sources of mortality for pest organisms and evaluate their potential role in contributing to pest management in the future. We also examine how human activities have effected changes in the ecological milieu within which pest-crop interactions take place and the selection regime under which pests evolve, and we relate the changes to prospects for pesticide use in the future. GLOBAL PESTICIDE MARKET TRENDS Chemical-Pesticide Market The global chemical-pesticide market is about $31 billion. It is a mature market with a growth of about 1-2% per year. Breakdowns by product category, crop, and by category for region for global and US markets are shown in Table 4-1 (Agrow 1998) and Table 4-2 (Aspelin and Grube, 1999).
OCR for page 145
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture TABLE 4-1 Global Chemical Pesticide Market (1997 Sales) Product Sales, billions of dollars % Herbicides 14.7 47.6 Insecticides 9.1 29.4 Fungicides 5.4 17.5 Others 1.7 5.5 Total 30.9 100.0 Crop Sales, billions of dollars % Fruits, nuts, vegetables 6.5 21.0 Home and garden, turf, and ornamentals 5.25 17.0 Oil crops 1.75 5.7 Cotton 1.5 4.9 Cereals 4.0 12.9 Maize 2.5 8.1 Rice 2.5 8.1 Sugarbeet 1.0 3.2 Other 5.9 19.1 Total 30.9 100.0 Region Sales, billions of dollars % North America 9.2 29.8 Western Europe 7.8 25.2 East Asia 7.1 23.0 Latin America 3.7 12.0 Rest of World 3.1 10.0 Worldwide Total 30.9 100.0 Source: Agrow, 1998. Biopesticide Market Biologically based pesticide products (also known as biorational products) generate sales of about $700 million per year (including transgenic crops) worldwide. The market for these products is expected to expand by over 20% over the next 5 years. Table 4-3 shows the sales figures for the global biopesticide market in the last few years and projected for 2004. These pesticides comprise living microorganisms or pheromones (animal-produced chemicals that serves as stimuli for behavioral responses in other individuals of the same species). The most successful biorational
OCR for page 146
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture TABLE 4-2 US Chemical Pesticide Market by Category (1997 Sales) Product Sales, billions of dollars % Herbicides 6.8 57.5 Insecticides 3.6 29.9 Fungicides & Other 1.5 12.6 Total 11.9a 100.0 aThis estimate for the US pesticide market is larger than other estimates for 1997 sales because it includes expenditures for some nonagricultural pesticide applications. This includes applications by owner/operators and custom/commercial applicators to industry, commercial and governmental facilities, buildings, sites, and land; and homeowner applications to homes and gardens, including lawns. Source: Aspelin and Grube, 1999. TABLE 4-3 Global Biopesticide Market (in millions of dollars). Year Market 1997 1998 1999 2004a % change (1999-2004) Microbial 65 66 67 72 7.5 Transgenic plants 405 429 455 610 34.1 Miscellaneous 180 184 188 208 10.6 Total 650 679 710 890 25.4 aestimated Source: Eppes, in press. pesticides are the Bacillus thuringiensis-based (Bt-based) microbial pesticides with current sales of about $140 million. More than 40% of Bt sales are in the United States. Rapid growth of Bt-based biopesticides is occurring as replacements of competitive chemical products that are being banned or phased out in environmentally sensitive areas, in consumer and export markets in which concerns about food residue is high, and in organic food production. The Industry Agricultural-Chemical Companies Of sales revenue of agricultural-chemical companies 7–13% is spent on pesticide research and development. The 1997 pesticide sales of leading agrichemical companies are ranked in Figure 4-1.
OCR for page 147
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture FIGURE 4-1 Pesticide sales of top 10 agrochemical companies, 1997. Source: Panna 1998. Major trends in the agrichemical industry today include Consolidation of multinational agrichemical companies. Rapid growth of transgenic-crop markets. Vertical integration of agrichemical firms with seed companies and food processors. Increase in generic pesticides (because chemicals are going off patent) Increase in consolidation and transformation of input distributors. Despite those trends, the different companies are investing their resources differently in a wide variety of technologies. Table 4-4 shows which companies are pursuing the technologies. Table 4-5 highlights the foci of the companies' pesticide programs. Major consolidation of multinational companies is under way. A wave of consolidations took place in the 1980s. In the 1990s, the merger of Sandoz and Ciba (forming Novartis) raised the bar even higher, creating an agrichemical company $2 billion larger than the next largest ($5 billion versus $3 billion). Business leaders continue to create empires that can rival Novartis in size. For example, AgrEvo has merged with Rhone-
OCR for page 148
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture TABLE 4-4 Comparison of Technologies Pursued by the Pesticide Industry Technology Companies Products Crops/Pest Date of Entry Transgenic seeds Monsanto/D&PL Bollgard (Bt) Cotton / bollworm and budworm 1996 Monsanto/Dekalb Roundup Ready Soybean / weeds 1996 Calgene/Stoneville BXN Cotton / weeds 1996 Monsanto/D&PL Roundup Ready Cotton / weeds 1997 Ciba, Dekalb, N.King Bt corn Corn / borer 1996, 1997 Mycogen, Pioneer Bt corn Corn / borer 1996, 1997 AgrEvo Liberty Link Canola / weeds 1996 Dekalb, Ciba, Pioneer Liberty Link Corn / weeds 1997 Asgrow Virus resistance Vegetables and fruits / viruses 1996 Synthetic chemicals Bayer Admire/Provado Multiple crops / sucking insects 1995 AgrEvo Applaud Cotton / whitefly 1996 Valent/Sumitomo Knack Cotton / whitefly 1996 Rohm & Haas Confirm/Intrepid Cotton, vegetables and fruits / caterpillars 1996, 1997 American Cyanamid Pirate / Alert Cotton and vegetables / caterpillars 1998 Rhone Poulenc Regent Cotton, corn, rice, and vegetables / sucking insects 1998, 1995 Zeneca Abound, Heritage Multiple crops / fungicide 1997 BASF Allegro Multiple crops / powdery mildew 1997 Novartis Bion Vegetables / viruses and fungi 1997
OCR for page 149
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Natural products Thermo Trilogy Align Vegetables / caterpillars 1995 Thermo Trilogy Neemix Greenhouse / mildew 1995 Dow Tracer Cotton and vegetables / caterpillars 1997 Novartis Proclaim Cotton and vegetables / caterpillars 1997 Biocontrol agents AgraQuest LAGINEX Rice and noncrops / mosquito 1997 Mycotech Mycotrol Fruits and vegetables / whitefly 1996 Thermo Trilogy Spod-X Cotton / caterpillars 1996 Ecogen AQ10 Grapes / powdery mildew 1996 Thermo Trilogy SoilGard Greenhouse-potting mix / fungi 1996 BioWorks BioTrek Field crops- / root rots 1996, 1997 Eden Biosciences Gray Gold Greenhouse / gray mold 1996, 1997 Liphatech/Gustafson UW85 Cotton and alfalfa seed / fungi treatment 1997 Abbott DiTerra Multiple crops / nematodes 1997 Abbott Trichodex Grapes / gray mold 1997 Abbott Spherimos Rice and noncrops / Mosquito larvae 1997
OCR for page 150
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture TABLE 4-5 Company Pesticide Programsa Pesticidal Natural Products Bacillus thuringiensis Living Fungi or Bacteria Entomopathogenic Nematodes Insect Viruses Transgenic Crops Pheromones Synthetic Chemicals Abbott 0 *** * 0 0 0 0 0 AgraQuest *** 0 * 0 0 0 0 0 AgrEvo 0 0 * 0 0 *** 0 *** Am Cy * 0 0 0 0 0 0 *** BASF * 0 0 0 0 0 * *** Bayer 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 *** BioWorks 0 0 *** 0 0 0 0 0 Consep 0 0 0 0 0 0 *** 0 Dominion 0 0 *** 0 0 0 ** 0 Dow ** 0 0 0 0 *** 0 *** DuPont 0 0 0 0 * *** 0 *** Ecogen 0 *** ** ** 0 0 *** 0
OCR for page 151
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture EcoScience 0 0 ** 0 0 0 0 0 Ecosoil Systems 0 ** *** 0 0 0 0 0 Eden Biosciences *** *** *** 0 0 0 0 0 FMC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 *** Mosanta 0 0 0 0 0 *** 0 *** Mycogen 0 * 0 0 0 *** 0 0 Mycotech 0 0 *** 0 0 0 0 0 Novartis ** 0 0 0 0 *** 0 *** Pioneer 0 0 0 0 0 *** 0 0 RhonePoulec 0 0 0 0 0 * 0 *** SafeScience *** 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Rohm and Haas 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 *** Sumitomo * 0 0 0 0 0 0 *** Thermo Trilogy ** *** ** ** ** 0 *** 0 Zeneca * 0 0 0 0 *** 0 *** a=little or no activity *=minor focus **=major focus ***=main focus of program
OCR for page 152
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture TABLE 4-6 Sales of Transgenic Crops and Chemical Pesticides, 1995-1997 Sales, millions of dollars 1995 1996 1997 Change, 1996-1997, % Herbicides 14,280 15,050 14,700 −2.33 Insecticides 8,750 8,745 9,100 4.06 Fungicides 5,855 5,895 5,400 −8.40 Plant-growth regulators and others 1,305 1,325 1,700 28.30 Total pesticides 30,190 31,015 30,900 −0.37 Total transgenic crops 75 235 650 176.60 Sources: Cultivar, 1997; Eppes, in press. Poulenc to form Aventis (about the size of Novartis), and Novartis and AstraZeneca have merged to form Syngenta. Another major trend in the market is the rapid growth of biotechnology products compared with chemical pesticides, stimulating the vertical integration of agrichemical companies with seed and food companies. These biotechnology products, chiefly transgenic-crop seed with pest-control attributes and herbicide tolerance, are dramatically changing market shares of agrichemical firms in soybeans (herbicide tolerance), cotton (insecticides for bollworm and budworm control), and corn (herbicide tolerance and insecticides for corn-borer control). Table 4-6 shows the total sales of transgenic crops relative to chemical pesticides in 1995–1997. Agrichemical companies have invested billions of dollars to develop or access crop seed genetically engineered for caterpillar and disease control and tolerance to herbicide sprays. Monsanto is the industry leader, with reported investment that totals more than $8 billion to acquire Calgene, Delta PineLand, Cargill, Ecogen, DeKalb, Agracetus, Asgrow, Holden's, and PBI. Other examples are Dow's purchase of Mycogen and Pioneer's $30 million deal with Mycogen to obtain nonexclusive access to Bt genes for genetically engineered corn seed. Novartis and Mycogen partnered to launch a transgenic corn seed containing a Bt gene for corn borer control. A strategic alliance composed of Mycogen, Rhone Poulenc, and Dow was formed to develop crops with input and output traits. Other shifts in the industry include the purchase of Plant Genetic Systems for $750 million by AgrEvo (Hoechst-Schering-Roussel), DuPont's purchase of 20% of Pioneer for $1.7 billion, and the acquisition of Mogen by AstraZeneca to complement its share of seed companies (now called Advanta).
OCR for page 153
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture There is still heavy reliance on traditional chemicals for weed control, in part because of the widespread reliance on genetically engineered glyphosate-resistant crops. Other companies still depend on agrichemicals for primary income. These same multinationals are also entering into agreements with food companies to develop crops with value-added traits. Many agrichemical companies are shifting resources away from inputs (pesticides) and input traits (pesticidal genes) to output traits. Examples of these traits are Improvements in feed value (for example, corn seed engineered with phytase enzyme or high levels of lysine, an essential amino acid). Higher-quality product (for example, fresh tomatoes with longer shelf-life or paste tomato with lower water content). Greater nutritional value (for example, rice with higher vitamin A content). The industry is investing billions of dollars in genomics to characterize the genes of entire organisms. Industrial leaders expect that advances in genomics will lead researchers to the precise location and sequence of genes that contain valuable input and output traits. A shift in R&D resources from input to output traits probably would have a large impact on the future of plant protection. Will the cycle of innovation on the input side continue? Because of the high investment required for development of chemical pesticides and transgenic crops, will large agrichemical and life-science firms focus primarily on crops with large markets (such as row crops)? Whether companies will develop pesticides and input traits for minor use crops remains an open question. A trend in agrichemical industry is the movement of many chemical pesticides off patent. As these chemicals become generic pesticides, manufacturers lose their monopolies on them. Large agrichemical companies are therefore aligning themselves with generic suppliers of chemical pesticides to reduce erosion in sales of the products that were formerly proprietary products. Several agrichemical companies have purchased outright or partially own generic companies. DuPont, for example, has entered into a joint venture and is now a 51% owner of Griffin. In May 1998, BASF purchased MicroFlo for the same reasons. As more products become generic, profit margins erode for distributors, as well as for manufacturers. In response, distributors are consolidating and becoming “basic manufacturers” through acquisitions of proprietary products. For example, Gowan Corp., Griffin, and United AgriProducts (UAP) have taken this approach. The consolidation of distributors can take two paths. In the first, a large distributor can acquire many smaller distributors. UAP, a practitio-
OCR for page 154
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture ner of this approach, is now as large as or larger than many basic manufacturing agrichemical companies and has revenues of $2 billion. The second path is the formation of consortiums of smaller distributors into a group with more influence than individual firms. In California, for example, a group of distributors joined to form a consortium called Integrated Agricultural Producers (IAP). The consolidation of distribution and agrichemical companies has created some concern for farmers. They are worried that they will have fewer choices and that prices will go up. However, the advent of the Internet is tearing down old structures, and the entire distributor-manufacturer relationship is expected to change for the benefit of farmers, who will be able to order all their products directly over the Internet. One of the most important trends for agrichemical companies is the growing shift towards the development and registration of reduced-risk pesticides. In 1993, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began a program of expedited review of what were classified as reduced-risk pesticides. Expedited reviews can reduce the time to registration by more than half (EPA 1998). Since the introduction of this program, the number registered as reduced-risk pesticides has steadily increased. Table 4-7 lists almost 20 reduced-risk pesticides that have been registered since 1994. For a pesticide to be considered of reduced risk, it must have at least one or more of the following characteristics (EPA 1997a): It must have a reduced impact on human health and very low mammalian toxicity. It must have toxicity lower than alternatives (0.01–0.1 as much). It displaces chemicals that pose potential human health concerns or reduces exposures to mixers, loaders, applicators, and re-entry workers. It reduces effects on non-target organism (such as birds, honey bees, and fish). It exhibits a lower potential for contaminating groundwater. It lowers use or entails fewer applications than alternatives. It has lower pest-resistance potential (that is, it has a new mode of action). It has a high compatibility with integrated pest management (IPM). It has increased efficacy. The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) went further and mandated expedited registration of reduced-risk pesticides that could be expected to pose less risk to human health and the environment than other pesticides that meet existing safety standards. Since the enactment of FQPA, 62% of the 48 active ingredients registered have been considered “safer”
OCR for page 199
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Callcott, A. M. and H. Collins. 1996. Invasion and range of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera Formicidae) in North America from 1918-1995. Fla. Ent. 79:240–251. Carlton, J.B., L.F. Bouse, and I.W. Kirk. 1995. Electrostatic charging of aerial spray over cotton. Trans. Of ASAE. 38:1641–1645. Carozzi, N., and M. Koziel, eds. 1997. Advances in insect control: the role of transgenic plants. London: Taylor & Francis. Carruthers, R. I., and K. Hural. 1990. Fungi as naturally occurring entomopathogens. Pp. 115-138 in New Directions In Biological Control: Alternatives For Suppressing Agricultural Pests And Diseases, R. R. Basker and P. E. Dunn, eds. Proceedings of a UCLA symposia on molecular and cellular biology, series v. 112. Los Angeles, Calif.: University of Califonria, Los Angeles. Carson, H. W., L. W. Lass, and R. H. Callihan. 1995. Detection of yellow hawkweed with high resolution digital images. Weed Technol. 9:477-483. Claeson, P., and L. Bohlin. 1997. Some aspects of bioassay methods in natural-product research aimed at drug lead discovery. Trends in Biotech. 15:245–248. Clough, J.M., P. J. De Fraine, T. E. M. Fraser, and C. R. Godfrey. 1992. Fungicidal betamethoxyacrylates: from natural products to novel synthetic agricultural fungicides. Pp. 372-383 in Synthesis and Chemistry of Agrochemicals III, D. R. Baker, J. G. Fenyes, and J. J. Steffens, eds. Symposium series 504. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. Coates, C. J., N. Jasinskiene, L. Miyashiro, and A. A. James. 1998. Mariner transposition and transformation of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:3748-3751. Collins, S., J. K. Conner, and G. E. Robinson. 1997. Foraging behavior of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) on Brassica nigra and B. rapa grown under simulated ambient and enhanced UV-B radiation. Ann. Ent.. Soc. Am. 90:102–106. Cousens, M. and M. Mortimer. 1995. Dynamics of Weed Populations. England: Cambridge University Press. Crampton, J. M., A. Morris, G. Lycett, A. Warren, and P. Eggleston. 1990. Transgenic mosquitoes: future vector control strategy? Parasitol. Today 6:31–36. Crowe, A.S. and J.P. Mutch. 1994. An expert systems approach for assessing groundwater contamination by pesticides. Ground Water 32(3):487–498. Cultivar 1997. The Impact of Transgenic Plants in the Markets. November 18-25. Cunningham, J.C. 1988. Baculoviruses: their status compared to Bacillus thuringiensis as microbial insecticides. Outlook on Ag. 17:10–17. Cure, J. D., and B. Adcock. 1986. Crop responses to carbon dioxide doubling: a literature survey. Ag. Forest Meterol. 38:127–45. Curtis, C. F. 1968. Introducing vector incompetence. Nature 218:368–69. Curtis, C. F.. 1992Selfish genes in mosquitoes. Nature 357:450. Curtis, C. F. 1994. The case for malaria control by genetic manipulation of its vectors . Parasitol. Today 10:371–74. Daly, J.C., and J. A. McKenzie. 1986. Resistance management strategies in Australia: the Heliothis and ‘Wormkill' programmes. Pp. 951-959 v. 3 of Proceedings of the British Crop Protection Conference - Pests and Diseases, November 17-20, 1986, Brighton, England. Daniels, B.T., and W. F. McTernan. 1994. A screening method to identify the probabilities of pesticide leaching . Ag. Water Manag. 25:23–4 Darmency, H. 1997. Movement of resistance genes among plants. Pp 209-220 in T. M. Brown, ed. Molecular Genetics and Evolution of Pesticide Resistance, M. T. Farvar and J. P. Milton, eds. Symposium Series 645. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.
OCR for page 200
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture David, W. A. L. and B. O. C. Gardiner. 1960. A Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus) culture resistant to a granulosis. J. Insect Pathol. 2:106–14. Davidson, G. 1974. The Genetic Control of Insect Pests. London; New York: Academic Press. Day, P. R. 1974. Genetics of Host-Parasite Interaction. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. Delp, C. J. 1988. Fungicide resistance problems in perspective. Pp. 4-5 in Fungicide Resistance in North America, C. J. Delp, ed. St. Paul, Minn.: APS Press. Denno, R. F., M. S. McClure, and J. R. Ott. 1995. Interspecific interactions in phytophagous insects – competition reexamined and resurrected. Ann. Rev. Ent. 40:297–331. Drake, V. A. 1994. The influence of weather and climate on agriculturally important insects – an Australian perspective. Australian J. of Ag. Res. 45(3):487–509. D'surney, S.J., J. T. Tschaplinski, N. T. Edwards, and L. R. Shugart. 1993. Biological responses of two soybean cultivars exposed to enhanced UVB radiation. Env. Exp. Bot. 33:347–356. Dutky, E. M. 1999. Plant Pathology Update. College Park: University of Maryland. Elkinton, J. S., A. E. Haje, G. H. Boettner, and E. E. Simmons. 1991. Distribution and apparent spread of Entomophaga maimaiga (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) in gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations in North America. Env. Ent. 20:1601–1605. Elliott, H.J., R. Bashford, A. Greener, and S. G. Candy. 1993. Integrated pest management of the Tasmanian eucalyptus leaf beetle, Chrysophtharta bimaculata (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). For. Ecol. Man. 53:29–38. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1997a. Pesticide Regulation (PR) Notice 97-3. Available. [Online]: http://www.epa.gov/opppmsd1/pr_Notices/pr97-3.html. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1997b. Pesticide Fact Sheet, Spinosad. Available. [Online]: http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/spinsoad.htm EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Staff Background Paper #2.4 – General Overview: Reduced Risk Pesticide Program. Available. [Online]: http://www.epa.gov/oppfead1/trac/safero.htm EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1999a. Implementing the Food Quality Protection Act. EPA 735-R-99001. Washington, D.C.: EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1999b. Fact Sheets on New Active Ingredients. [Online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets. EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Interim Fiscal Year 2000 Work Plan. Office of Pesticide Programs. [Online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/workplan/fy2000.htm Eppes, J. In press. The Future of Biopesticides. Norfolk, Conn.: Business Communications Corporation. Everitt, J. H., D. E. Escobar, R. Villarreal, M. A. Alaniz, and M. R. Davis. 1993. Integration of airborne video, global positioning system, and geographic information system technologies for detecting and mapping two woody legumes on rangelands. Weed Tech. 7:981–987. Feldheim, K., and Conner, J. K. 1996. The effects of increased UV-B radiation on growth, pollination success, and lifetime female fitness in two Brassica species. Oecologia 106:284–297. Fellowes, M. D. E., A. R. Kraaijeveld, and H. C. J. Godfray. 1998. Trade-off associated with selection for increased ability to resist parasitoid attack in Drosophila melanogaster. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 265(1405):1553–1558. Ferro, D. N. 1993. Integrated pest management in vegetables in Massachsetts. Pp. 95-107 in Successful Implementation Of Integrated Pest Management For Agricultural Crops, A. R. Leslie, and G. W. Cuperus, eds.. Boca Raton, Fla: Lewis Publications.
OCR for page 201
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Ferro, D. N. and S. M. Lyon. 1991. Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval mortality: operative effects of Bacillus thuringiensissubsp. san diego. J. Econ. Entomol. 84:806–809. Ferro, D.N. and Gelernter, W.D. 1989. Toxicity of a new strain of Bacillus thuringiensis to Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). J. Econ. Ent.. 82:750–755. Fisher, J. R., J. J. Jackson and A. C. Lew. 1994. Temperature and diapause development in the egg of Diabrotica barberi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Env. Ent. 23(2):464–471. Forgash, A. J. 1984. History, evolution, and consequences of insecticide resistance. Pestic. Biochem. Physio. 22:178–186. Foster, G. G., W. G. Vogt, T. L. Woodburn, and P. H. Smith. 1988. Computer simulation of genetic control. Comparison of sterile males and field-female killing systems. Theor. Appl. Genet. 76:870–879. Foyer, C. H. 1993. Interactions between electron transport and carbon assimilation in leaves: coordination of activities and control. Pp. 199-224 in Photosynthesis: Photoreactions to Plant Productivity, Y. P. Abrol, P. Mohanty, and Govindjee, eds. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Franco, C. M. M., and L. E. L. Coutinho. 1991. Detection of novel secondary metabolites. Crit. Rev. in Bio. 11:193–276. Frankenhuyzen, K. U. 1993. The challenge of Bacillus thuringiensis. Pp. 193-220 in Bacillus thuringiensis, an Experimental Biopesticide: Theory and Practice, P. F. Entwistle, J. S. Cory, M. J. Bailey, and S. Higgs, eds. Chichester, New York: John Wiley & Sons. fFrench-Constant, R. H. 1994. The molecular and population genetics of cyclodience insecticide resistance. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 24(4):335–345. Frei, B., and P. Schmid. 1997. Development trends in pesticide formulation and packaging. Pp. 34-43 in. Pesticide Formulation and Adjuvant Technology, C.L. Foy and D. W. Pritchard, eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Gelernter, W. D., N. C. Toscano, K. Kido, and B. A. Federici. 1986. Comparison of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus and chemical insecticides for control of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on head lettuce. J. Ec.. Ent.. 79:714–717. Georghiou, G. P. 1986. The magnitude of the resistance problem. Pp. 14-43 in Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management, National Research Council, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press: Georghiou, G. P., and A. Lagunes. 1988. The Occurrence of Resistance to Pesticides: Cases of Resistance Reported Worldwide Through 1988. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Ghate, S. R., and C. D. Perry. 1994. Ground speed control of pesticide application rates in a compressed air direct injection sprayer. Trans. of ASAE. 37:33–38. Gold, W. G., and M. M. Caldwell. 1983. The effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on plant competition in terrestrial ecosystems. Physiological Plantarum. 58:435–444. Good, A. G., G. A. Meister, H. W. Brock, T. A. Grigliatti, and D. A. Hickey. 1989. Rapid spread of transposable P elements in experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 122:387–396. Gould, F. 1988. Evolutionary biology and genetically engineered crops. BioScience 38:26–31. Gould, F. 1991. Evolutionary potential of crop pests. Amer. Sci. 79:496–507. Gould, F. 1995. Comparisons between resistance management strategies for insects and weeds. Weed Tech. 9:830–839. Gould, F. and P. Schliekelman. In press. Reassess autocidal control. In New technologies for Integrated Pest Management, G. G. Kennedy and T. Sutton, eds. St. Paul, Minn: APS Press
OCR for page 202
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Grace, S. C., and B. A. Logan. 1996. Acclimation of foliar antioxidant systems to growth irradiance in three broad-leaved evergreen species. Plant Phys. 112:1631–1640. Grinstein, A., and G. A. Matthews. 1997. Preface. Phytoparasitics. 25:Suppl:9S–10S. Gueldner, R., C. Reilly, L. Pusey, C. Costello, R. Arrendale, R. Cox, R., D. Himmelsbach, G. Crumley, H. Cutler. 1988. Isolation and identification of iturins as antifungal peptides in biological control of peach brown rot with Bacillus subtilis. J. Ag. Food Chem., 36:366–370. Hall, F.R., and R. D. Fox. 1997. The reduction of pesticide drift. Pp. 209-240 in Pesticide Formulation and Adjuvant Technology, C. L. Foy and D. W. Pritchard eds. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. Hall, F. R., A. C. Chapple, R. A. Downer, L. M. Kirchner, and J. R. M. Thacker. 1993. Pesticide application as affected by spray modifiers. Pesticide Science: 38(2/3):123–133. Hanks, J. E., and J. L. Beck. 1998. Sensor-controlled hooded sprayers for row crops. Weed Tech. 12:308–314. Harris, M. K., ed. 1980. Biology and breeding for resistance to arthropods and pathogens in agricultural plants. Texas Agric. Exp. Stn. Pub. MP-1451. Hastings, I. M. 1994. Selfish DNA as a method of pest control. Proc. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B 344:313–324. Hatcher, P. E., and N. D. Paul. 1994. The effect of elevated UV-B radiation on herbivory of pea by Autographa gamma. Ent. Exp. Et App. 71:227–233. He, H., Silo-Suh, L.A., Handelsman, J., Clardy, J. 1994. Zwittermicin A, an antifungal and plant protection agent from Bacillus cereus. Tet. Letters 35:2499–2502. Heap, I. 2000. International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. March 23, 2000. [Online]. Available: www.weedscience.com. Hedin, P. A., ed. 1983. Plant resistance to insects. ACS Symposium series 208. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. Henter, H. J., and S. Via. 1995. The potential for coevolution in a host-parasitoid system 1.1. Genetic variation within an aphid population in susceptibility to a parasitic wasp. Evolution. 49(3):427–438. Hill, M. J., G. E. Donald, P. J. Vickery, and E. P. Furnival. 1996. Integration of satellite remote sensing, simple bioclimatic models and GIS for assessment of pasture suitability for a commercial grazing enterprise. Australian J. of Exp. Ag. 36:309–321. Hinkle, M. K. 1982. Impact of the imported fire ant control programs on wildlife and quality of the environment. Pp. 41-43 in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Imported Fire Ant, June 7-10, 1981, Atlanta, Georgia, S. L. Battenfield, ed. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Agriculture. Holt, J. S., S. B. Powles and J. A. M. Holtum. 1993. Mechanisms and agronomic aspects of herbicide resistance. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Molec. Biol. 44:203–229. Hoy, M. A., R. D. Gaskalla, J. L. Capinera, and C. N. Keierleber. 1997. Laboratory containment of transgenic arthropods. Am. Entomol. 43:206-209, 255–256. IANR (University of Nebraska Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources). 1994. From Lab to Label. [Online]. Available: HtmlResAnchor http://ianrwww.unl.edu/ianr/pat/hortpara/sld031.htm (9/22/98). Ignoffo, C. M., and C. Garcia. 1992. Combinations of environmental factors and simulated sunlight affecting activity of inclusion bodies of the Heliothis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) nucleopolyhedrosis virus. Env. Ent. 21:210–213. Jansson, R. K., W. R. Halliday, and J. A. Argentine. 1997. Evaluation of miniature and high-volume bioassays for screening insecticides . J. Ec. Ent. 90:1500–1507. Jaques, R .P. and Laing, D. R. 1989. Effectiveness of microbial and chemical insecticides in control of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on potatoes and tomatoes. Can. Ent. 121:1123–1131.
OCR for page 203
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Jordan, N. R. 1993. Prospects for weed control through crop interference. Ec. App. 3:84–91. Kaiser, K. 1978. The rise and fall of Mirex. Env. Sci. Tech. 12:520–528. Kareiva, P. 1993. Agriculture – transgenic plants on trial Nature. 363:580–581. Kareiva, P. 1996. Contributions of ecology to biological control. Ecology. 77:1963–1964. Kerremans, P. and G. Franz. 1995. Isolation and cytogenetic analyses of genetic sexing strains for the medfly, Ceratitis capitata. Theor. Appl. Genet. 9:255–261. Kidwell, M. G. and A. R. Wattam. 1998. An important step forward in the genetic manipulation of mosquito vectors of human disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:3349–3350. Kidwell, M. G., and J. M. C. Ribeiro. 1992. Can transposable elements be used to drive disease refractoriness genes into vector populations? Parasitol. Today 8:325–329. Kline, W., K. Holmstrom, and S. Walker. 1996. ECB and CEW Mapping for Vegetable Crop IPM. Rutgers Cooperative Extension/Grant F. Walton Center for Remote Sensing & Spatial Analysis is now Utilizing GIS/GPS/RS Technologies for Precision Agriculture. [Online]. Available: http://deathstar.rutgers.edu/projects/gps/gps.html#IPM Klinger, T., P. E. Arriola and N. C. Ellstrand. 1992. Crop-weed hybridization in radish (Raphanus sativus): effects of distance and population size. Am. J. Botany 79(12):1431–1435. Kogan, M. 1982. Plant resistance in pest management. Pp. 93-134 in Introduction to Insect Pest Management, R. L. Metcalf and W. H. Luckman, eds. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Kommedahl, T., and Mew, I. 1975. Biocontrol of corn root infection in the field by seed treatment with antagonists. Phytopathol. 65:296–300. Kooman P.L., M. Fahem, P. Tegera, and A. J. Haverkort. 1996. Effects of climate on different potato genotypes to dry matter allocation and duration of the growth cycle. Eur. J. of Agr. 5(3-4):207–217. Korzybski, T., Z. Kowszyk-Gindifer, and W. Kurylowicz. 1978. Section C: Antibiotics isolated from the genus Bacillus (Bacillaceae). In Antibiotics - Origin, Nature and Properties, Volume III. Washington, D.C.: American Society for Microbiology.. Krafsur, E. S., C. J. Whitten, and J. E. Novy. 1987. Screwworm eradication in North and Central-America. Parasitology Today. 35:131–137. Krimsky, S.,and R. Wrubel. 1996. Agricultural Biotechnology and the Environment. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. Krysan, J. L., D. E. Foster, T. F. Branson, K. R. Ostlie, and W. W. Crenshaw. 1986. Two years before the hatch: rootworms adapt to crop rotation. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am. 32:250–253. Lamoreaux, R. J. 1990. Herbicide discovery and development: Emphasis on groundwater protection . Crop Protection 13:483–487. Larson, R. A. 1988. The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochemistry. 27:969–978. Lass W. L., and R. H. Callihan. 1997. The effect of phenological stage on detectability of yellow hawkweed (Hieracium pratense) and oxeye daisy (Chysanthemum leucanthemum) with remote multispectral digital imagery. Weed Technol. 11:248–256. Lass, L. W., H. W. Carson, and R. H. Callihan. 1996. Detection of yellow starthistle with high resolution multispectral digital images. Weed Technol. 10:466–474. Leason, M., Cunfliffe, D., Parkin, D., Lea, P.J., and Miflin, B.J. 1982. Inhibition of pea leaf glutamine synthetase by methionine sulphoximine, phosphinothricin and other glutamate analogues. Phytochemistry 21:855–857. Liedtke, J. 1997. High Resolution Imagery Will Enhance the Effectiveness of Precision Farming. Ag Innovator. [Online]. Available HtmlResAnchor http://www.agriculture.com/ 01/11/97. Lyttle, M. H. 1995. Combinatorial chemistry: A conservative perspective. Drug Development Research. 35:230–236.
OCR for page 204
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Lyttle, M. H., M. D. Hocker, U. C. Hui, C. G. Caldwell, D. T. Aaron, A. Engquist-Goldstein, J. E. Flatgaard, and K. E. Bauer. 1994 Isozyme specific glutathione-S-transferase inhibitors: Design and synthesis. J. Med. Chem. 37:189–194. MacIntosh, S. C., G. M. Kishore, F. J. Perlak, P. G. Marrone, T. B. Stone, S. R. Sims, and R. L. Fuchs. 1990. Potentiation of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity by serine protease inhibitors. J. Agric. and Food Chem. 38:1145–1152. Madronich, S. 1993. The atmosphere and UVB radiation at ground level. Pp. 1-39 in Environmental UVB Photobiology, A. R. Young. New York: Plenum Press. Manker, D. C., R. L. Starnes, M. G. Beccio, W. D. Lidster, S. C. MacIntosh, J. K. Swank, D. R. Jiménez, and D. R. Edwards. 1995. A synergistic metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with potential for use in agricultural applications. Invited Symposia Pacifichem ‘95 Honolulu, Hawaii, December 1995. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. Manker, D.C., B. D. Lidster, S. C. MacIntosh, and R. L. Starnes. 1994. Potentiator of Bacillus pesticidal activity, US Patent Application Serial # 08/146,852, PCT # WO 9409630. (May 11) Marrone, P. G. 1999. Microbial pesticides and natural products as alternatives. Outlook on Ag. 28(3):149–154.\par Maxwell, B. D., M. L. Roush, and S. R. Radosevich. 1990. Predicting the evolution and dynamics of herbicide resistance in weed populations. Weed Tech: 4(1):2–13. McCloud, E. S., and M. R. Berenbaum. 1994. Stratospheric ozone depletion and plant-insect interactions: effects of UV-B radiation on foliage quality of Citrus jambhiri for Trichoplusia ni. J. Chem. Ecol. 20:525–539. McCoy, C. W. 1990. Ventomogenous fungi as microbial pesticides. Pp.139-159 in New Directions In Biological Control: Alternatives For Suppressing Agricultural Pests And Diseases, R. R. Basker and P. E. Dunn, eds. Proceedings of a UCLA Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology , Series v. 112. McGaughey, W., F. Gould, and W. Gelernter. 1998. Bt resistance management. Nature Biotech. 16:144–146. McKenzie, J. A. and A. Y. Game. 1987. Diazinon resistance in Lucilia cuprina: Mapping of a fitness modifier. Heredity 59:371–381. Meister, G. A. and T. A. Grigliatti. 1994. Rapid spread of a P element/Adh gene construct through experimental populations of Drosophila melaogaster. Genome 36:1169–1175. Metcalf, R. L. 1989. Insect resistance to insecticides. Pest.. Sci. 26:333–358. Milner, J. L., L. Silo-Suh, J. C. Lee, H. He, J. Clardy, J. Handelsman. 1996. Production of kanosamine by Bacillus cereus UW85. Appl. Env.. Microb. 62:3061–3065. Moar, W. J., and Trumble, J. T. 1987. Biologically derived insecticides for use against beet armyworm. Calif. Agr.. Nov-Dec:13-15. Mochida, O. 1992. Management of insect pests of rice in 2000. Pp. 67-81 in Pest Management and the Environment in 2000, A. Aziz, S.A. Kadir, and H. S. Barlow, eds. Seminar Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Mooney, H. A., and W. Koch. 1994. The impact of rising CO2 concentrations on the terrestrial biosphere . Ambio 23:74–76. Moore, J. 1991. Insecticide program stresses B.t. products. Am. Veg. Grower. Jan:32-34. Moulin, A. P. 1996. Decision support systems and computer models, new tools for contemporary agriculture. Can. J. P1. Sci. 76:1. Mulrooney, J. E., K. D. Howard, J. E. Hanks, and R. G. Jones. 1997. Application of ultra-low-volume malathion by air-assisted ground sprayer for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) control. J. Econ. Ent.. 90:639–645. Murdoch, W. W., J.D. Reeve, and C.B.Huffaker. 1984. Biological control of olive scale and its relevance to ecological theory. Am. Nat. 123:371–392.
OCR for page 205
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Murdoch, W.W., R.F. Luck, and S.L. Swarbrick. 1995. Regulation of an insect population under biological control. Ecology 76:206–217. Murdoch, W.W. and C.J. Briggs. 1996. Theory for biological control: recent developments. Ecology 77:2001–2013. Myers, J. H., A. Savoie, and E. Vanreden. 1998. Eradication and pest management. Ann Rev. Ent. 43:471–491. NASA, 1998. Data And Information Services For Global Change Research. Sioux Falls, S.Dak.: Earth Observing System (EOS), EROS Data Center. Niemela, P. and W. J. Mattson. 1996. Invasion of North American forests by European phytophagous insects —Legacy of the European crucible. Bioscience. 46:741–753. NRC (National Research Council). 1986. Pp. 100-110 in Pesticide Resistance: Strategies and Tactics for Management. Washington, DC: National Academy Press NRC (National Research Council). 1991. Neem: A Tree for Solving Global Problems. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 1996. Ecologically Based Pest Management: New Solutions for a New Century . Washington, DC: National Academy Press NRC (National Research Council). 1997. Precision Agriculture in the 21st Century: Geospatial and Information Technologies in Crop Management. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Olson, K. E., S. Higgs, P. J. Gaines, A. M. Powers, B. S. Davis, K. I. Kamrud, J. O. Carlson, C.D. Blair, and B. J. Beaty. 1996. Genetically engineered resistance to dengue-2 virus transmission in mosquitoes. Science 272:884–886. Orth, A. B., H. Teramura, and H. D. Sisler. 1990. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation of fungal disease development in Cucumis sativus. Am. J. of Botany. 77:1188–1192. Osburn, R.M., Milner, J.L., Oplinger, E.S., Smith, R.S., Handelsman, J. 1995. Effect of Bacillus cereus UW85 on the yield of soybean at two sites in Wisconsin. Plant Dis. 79:551–556. Otvos, I.S., J. C. Cunningham, and W. J. Knapp. 1989. Aerial application of two baculoviruses against the western spruce budworm, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in British Columbia. Can. Ent.. 121:209–217. Ozkan, E, ed. 1997. Equipment Developments. Chemical Application Technology. Newsletter 1(1):6p. [Online]. Available: http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~catnews/catequi.htm. Paice, M. E. R, P .C.H. Miller, and W. Day. 1996. Control requirements for spatially selective herbicide sprayers. Comp. and Elect. in Ag. 14:163–177. Panagopoulus, I., J. F. Borman, and L. O. Bjorn. 1991. Response of sugar beet plants to ultraviolet-B (280-320nm) radiation and Cercospora leaf spot disease. Physiologia Plantarum 84:140–145. PANNA (Pesticide Action Network North America). 1998. PANUPS: Pesticide Updates – Asia, October 16, 1998. Adapted from Agrow: World Crop Protection News, 6/26/98 and 9/18/98 . Parlow, J. J., D. A. Mischke, and S. S. Woodard. 1997. Utility of complementary molecular reactivity and molecular recognition (CMR/R) technology and polymer-supported reagents in the solution-phase synthesis of heterocyclic carboxamides. J. Org. Chem. 62:5908–5919. Penuelas, J., and M. Estiarte. 1998. Can elevated CO2 affect secondary metabolism and ecosystem function? Trends Eco. Evo. 13:20–24. Peterson, J. J. 1978. Development of resistance by the southern house mosquito to the parasitic nematode Romanomermis culicivorax. Env. Ent. 7:518–520. Pettigrew, M. M., and S. L. O'Neill. 1997. Control of vector-borne disease by genetic manipulation of insect populations: technological requirements and research priorities. Aust. J. of Ent.. 36:309–317.
OCR for page 206
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Peypoux, F., F. Besson, G. Michel, L. Delcambe, and B. Das, B. 1978. Structure de l'iturine C de Bacillus subtilis. Tetrahedron 34:1147–1152. Pfadt, R. 1971. Fundamentals of Applied Entomology. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pfeifer, T. A. and T. A. Grigliatti. 1996. Future perspectives on inspect pest management: engineering the pest . J. Invert. Pathol. 67:109–119. Pimentel, D. 1995. Amounts of pesticides reaching target pests: environmental impacts and ethics. J. Ag. Env. Ethics. 8:17–29. Pimentel, D., L. Lach, R. Zuniga, and D. Morrison. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindignous species in the United States. Bioscience: 50(1):53–65. Pimm, S. L., G. J. Russell, J.L. Gittleman, T. M. Brooks. 1995. The future of biodiversity. Science. 269(5222):347–350. Plant, R.E. and N.D. Stone. 1991. Knowledge-based systems in agriculture. Toronto, Ontario: McGraw-Hill, Inc. Podgwaite, J. D., R. C. Reardon, D. M. Kolodny-Hirsch, and G. S. Walton. 1991. Efficacy ofground application of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) nucleopolyhedrosis virus product, Gypchek. J. Econ. Ent. 84:440–444. Porter, J. H., M. L. Parry, and T. R. Carter. 1991. The potential effects of climatic change on agricultural insect pests . Agric. Forest Meterol. 57:221–240. Prout, T. 1978. The joint effects of the release of sterile males and immigration of fertilized females on a density regulated population. Theor. Popul. Biol. 13:40–71. Purvis, A., P.M. Agapow, J.L. Gittleman, and G. M. Mace. 2000. Nonrandom extinction and the loss of evolutionary history. Science. 288(5464):328-330. Quarles, William. 1996. New Microbial Pesticides for IPM. IPM Pract. 18(8), August:5-10. Raffa, K. F. 1989. Genetic engineering of trees to enhance resistance to insects. BioScience 39:524–534. Raymond, M., A. Callaghan, P. Fort and N. Pasteur. 1991. Worldwide migration of amplified insecticide resistance genes in mosquitoes. Nature 350:151–153. Ribeiro, J. M. C. and M. G. Kidwell. 1994. Transposable elements as population drive mechanisms: specification of critical parameter values. J. Med. Entomol. 31:10–16. Robertson, H. M, and Lampe, D. J., 1995. Distribution of transposable elements in arthropods. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 40:333–357. Robertson, S. T. 1980. History of gas odorization. Pp. 1-5(a). in: Odorization, F. H. Suchomel and J. W. Weatherly III, eds.. Chicago, Ill.: Institute of Gas Technologies. Rodgers, P.B. 1993. Potential of biopesticides in agriculture. Pestic. Sci. 39:117-129. Rogers, H. H. and R. C. Dahlman. 1993. Crop responses to CO2 enrichment. Vegetatio 104/105:117–131. Ros, J.,and M. Tevini. 1995. Interaction of UV-radiation and IAA during growth of seedlings and hypocotyl segments of sunflower. J. Plant Physiol. 146:295–302. Rosenheim, J. A. 1998. Higher-order predators and the regulation of insect herbivore populations . Ann. Rev. Entomol. 43:421–447. Roush, R. T. and W. M. Tingey. 1991. Evolution and management of resistance in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Resistance ‘91—Achievements and Developments in Combating Pesticide Resistance, Rothamsted Experimental Station, 15–17 July. Roush, M. L., S. R. Radosevich, and B. D. Maxwell. 1990. Future outlook for herbicide-resistance research. Weed Tech.: 4(1):208–214. Sammons, A. E., C. R. Edwards, L. W. Bledsoe, P. J. Boeve, and J. J. Stuart. 1997. Behavioral and feeding assays reveal a western corn rootworm (coleoptera, chrysomelidae) variant that is attracted to soybean. Env. Ent. 25(6):1336–1342.
OCR for page 207
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Sasaki, A., and H. C. J. Godfray. 1999. A model for coevolution of resistance and virulence in coupled host-parasitoid interactions. P Roy Soc Lond B Bio 266(1418):455–463. Schoper, J.B., R. J. Lambert, and B. L. Vasilas. 1987. Pollen viability, pollen shedding, and combining ability for tassel heat tolerance in maize. Crop Sci. 27:27–31. Schwinn, F. J. and H. V. Morton. 1990. Antiresistance strategies: design and implementation in practice. Pp. 170-183 in: Managing Resistance to Agrochemicals From Fundamental Research to Practical Strategies, M. B. Green, H. M. LeBaron and W. K. Moberg, eds. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society. Sears, M. K., Jaques, R. P. and Laing, J. E. 1983. Utilization of action thresholds for microbial and chemical control of lepidopterous pests (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Pieridae) on cabbage . J. Econ. Ent.. 76:368–374. Serebovsky, A. S. 1940. On the possibility of a new method for the control of insect pests . Zool. Zh. 19:618–630. Sharga, B. M. 1997. Bacillus isolates as potential biocontrol agents against chocolate spot on Faba beans . Can. J. Microbio. 43:915–924. Shelton, A. M. and J. A. Wyman. 1991. Insecticide Resistance of Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in North America. Proc. Second Internatl. Diamondback Moth Workshop . Taiwan. Shemshedini, L. and T. G. Wilson. 1990. Resistance to juvenile hormone and an insect growth regulator in Drosophila is associated with an altered cytosolic juvenile hormone-binding protein. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87:2072–2076. Sholberg, P.L., Marchi, A., Berchard, J. 1995 Biocontrol of postharvest diseases of apple using Bacillus spp. isolated from stored apples. Can. J. Microbiol. 41:247–252. Silo-Suh, L.A., B. Lethbridge, S. J. Raffel, H. He, J. Clardy, and J. Handelsman. 1994 Biological activities of two fungistatic antibiotics produced by Bacillus cereus UW85. Appl. Envi.. Microb. 60:2023–2030. Sinkins, S. P., C. F. Curtis, and S. L. O Neill. 1997. The potential use of symbionts to manipulate arthropod populations . In Influential Passengers: Inherited Microorganisms And Arthropod Reproduction , S. L. O Neill, A. A. Hoffman, and J. H. Werren, eds. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Sinkins, S. P., H. R. Braig, and S. L. O'Neill. 1995. Wolbachia superinfections and the expression of cytoplasmic incompatibility . Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond B Bio. 261(1362):325–330. Slansky, F. S., Jr. 1992. Allelochemical-nutrient interactions in herbivore nutritional ecology . Pp. 135-174 in Herbivores: Their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites, Volume 2, Ecological and Evolutionary Processes, G. Rosenthal and M. Berenbaum, eds. New York: Academic Press. Smith, K. P., M. J. Havey, and J. Handelsman. 1993. Suppression of cottony leak of cucumber with Bacillus cereus strain UW85. Plant Dis. 77:139–142. Smits, P. H., I. P. Rietstra, and J. M. Vlak. 1988. Influence of application techniques on the control of beet armyworm larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J. Econ. Ent. 81:470–475. Smits, P. H., M. C. van Velden, M. van de Vrie, and J. M. Vlak. 1987b. Feeding and dispersion of Spodoptera exigua larvae and its relevance for control with a nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Ent. Exp. Appl. 43:67–72. Smits, P. H., M. van de Vrie, and J. M. Vlak. 1987a. Nuclear polyhedrosis virus for control of Spodoptera exigua larvae on glasshouse crops. Ent.. Exp. Appl., 43:73-80. Spielman, A. 1994. Why entomological antimalaria research should not focus on transgenic mosquitoes. Parasitol. Today 10:374–376. Stabb, E. V., L. M. Jacobson, and J. Handelsman. 1994. Zwittermicin A producing strains of Bacillus cereus from diverse soils. Appl. Env. Microb. 60:4404–4412.
OCR for page 208
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Starnes, R. L., C. L. Liu, and P. G. Marrone. 1993. History, use and future of microbial insecticides. Am. Ent. 39:83–91. Stetter, J. 1998. Pesticide innovation: trends in research and development. Med. Fac. Landbouwww. Univ. Gent.: 63(2):135–164. Stewart, P A., and A. Sorensen. 2000. Federal uncertainty or inconsistency? Releasing the new agricultural-environmental biotechnology into the fields. Politics and Life Sciences 19(1): in press. Sun, C. N., Y. C. Tsai and F. M. Chiang. 1992. Resistance in the diamondback moth to pyrethroids and benzoylphenylureas . Pp. 149-167 in Molecular Mechanisms of Insecticide Resistance: Diversity Among Insects , C. A. Mullin and J. G. Scott, eds., Washington, DC: American Chemical Society Swanson, M. B., G. A. Davis, L. E. Kincaid, T. Schultz, J. E. Bartimess, S. Jones, and E. L. George. 1997. A screening method for ranking and scoring chemicals by potential human health and environmental impacts. Env. Tox and Chem. 16:372–383. Taylor, A. G., and G. E. Harman.. 1990. Concepts and technologies of selected seed treatments. Ann. Rev. Phyto. 28:321–339. Teramura, A. H. 1983. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on the growth and yield of crop plants. Phys. Plant. 58:415–427. Teramura, A.H., and J. H. Sullivan. 1991. Potential impacts of increased solar UV-B on global plant productivity . Pp. 625-634 in Photobiology, E. Riklis, ed. New York: Plenum Press. Tette J. P. and B. J. Jacobsen. 1992. Biologically intensive pest management in the tree fruit system. Pp. 57-83 in Food, Crop Pests and the Environment, the Need and Potential for Biologically Intensive Integrated Pest Management, Zalom F.G. and Fry, W. E., eds., St. Paul, Minn.: APS Press. Tevini, M. 1993. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on terrestrial plants. Pp. 125-153 in UV-B Radiation and Ozone Depletion: Effects on Humans, Animals, Plants, Microorganisms, and Materials, M. Tevini, ed. Boca Raton, Fla: Lewis Publications. Tevini, M., and A. H. Teramura. 1989. UV-B effects on terrestrial plants. Photochem. Photobiol. 50:479–487. Thirumalachar, M., and M O'Brien. 1977. Suppression of charcoal rot in potato with a bacterial antagonist . Plant Dis. Reptr. 61(7):543–546. Thomas, D.A., C. A. Donnelly, R. J. Wood, and L. S. Alphey. 2000. Insect population control using a dominant, repressible, lethal genetic system. Science 287(5462):2474–2476. Thompson, G.D., J. D. Busacca, O. K. Jantz, and H. A. Kirst. 1994. Spinosyns: an overview of new natural insect management systems. Proceedings of the ESA Annual Meeting, Dallas, 13-17 December 1994 . Trumble, J .T., and B. Alvarado-Rodriguez. 1993. Development and economic evaluation of an IPM program for fresh market tomato production in Mexico. Agric. Ecosys.and Env. 43:267–284. Trumble, J. T. 1985. Integrated pest management of Liriomyza trifolii: influence of avermectin, cyromazine, and methomyl on leafminer ecology in celery. Ag. Ecosys. and Env. 12:181–188. Trumble, J. T. 1989. Leafminer and beet armyworm control on celery. Final Report for 1988-9, Project #9, University of California at Riverside. Trumble, J. T. 1990. Vegetable insect control with minimal use of insecticides. Hort. Sci. 25:159–164. Trumble, J. T. 1991. California Tomato Board Layman's Summary 13-O. Tumlinson, J. H., C. M. Demoraes, W. J. Lewis, P. W. Pare, and H. T. Alborn. 1998. Herbivore-infested plants selectively attract parasitioids. Nature 393(6685):570–573. Turchin, P. 1999. Population regulation: a synthetic view. Oikos. 84:153–159.
OCR for page 209
The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture UC Davis (University of California, Davis). 1997. Proceedings of the Workshop on Remote Sensing for Agriculture in the 21st century, October 1996. Available. [Online]: http://cstars.ucdavis.edu/proj/ag-21/ag21cen.html. Ustin, S. L., D. A. Roberts, and Q. J. Hart. 1997. Seasonal vegetation patterns in a California coastal savanna derived from advanced visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (aviris) data . In Remote Sensing Change Detection: Environmental Monitoring Applications and Methods, Elvidge, C.D., and Lunetta, R., eds. Ann Arbor, Mich: Ann Arbor Press. Utkhede, R., and J. Rahe. 1983. Interactions of antagonist and pathogen in biological control of onion white rot. Phytopath. 73:890–893. Vanderplank, F. L. 1944. Hybridization between Glossina species and suggested new method for control of certain species of tsetse. Nature 154:607–08. Vargas-Teran, M., B. S. Hursey, and E. P. Cunningham. 1994. Eradication of the screw-worm from Libya using the sterile insect technique. Parasitol. Today 10:119–122. Vitousek, P. M., C. M. D'Antonio, L. L. Loope, and R. Westbrooks. 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am. Sci. 84:468–478. Wagner, P. 1993. Techniques of representing knowledge in knowledge-based systems. Ag. Sys. 41:53–76. Warr, W. A. 1997a. Combinatorial chemistry and molecular diversity: An overview. J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 37:134–140. Warr, W. A. 1997b. Commercial software systems for diversity analysis. Persp. Drug Disc. Design.. 7/8:115–130. Warwick, S. I. 1991. Herbicide resistance in weedy plants: physiology and population biology . Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 22:95–114. Watson, R. T., M. C. Zinyowera, R. H. Moss, eds. 1996. Climate Change 1995. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Weller, M. 1988. Biological control of soilborne plant pathogens in the rhizosphere with bacteria. Ann. Rev. Phyto. 26:379–407. Werren, J. H. 1997. Biology of Wolbachia. Ann. Rev. Ent. 42:587–609. Westbrooks, R. G. 1998. Invasive Plants: Changing the Landscape of American: Fact Book. Washington, DC: Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds. White, A. D., and H. D. Coble. 1997. Validation of HERB for use in peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Weed Technol. 11:573–579. Whitten, M. J., and G. G. Foster. 1975. Genetical methods of pest control. Ann. Rev. Ent. 20:461–476. Williams, C. M. 1967. Third-generation pesticides. Sci. Am. 217:13–17. Wilson, E. O. 1993. Is humanity suicidal. Biosystems. 31(2-3):235–242. Wood, M. 1992. Microbes blow those hornworms away. Ag. Res. June:4–7. Yamamoto, H. 1985. Development of validamycin, its controlling effect on rice sheath blight. Jpn. Pest. Inf. 17:17. Yamanaka, S., M. Hashimoto, M. Tobe, K. Kobayasii, J. Sekizawa, and M. Nishimura. 1990. A simple method for screening assessment of acute toxicity of chemicals . Archives of Tox. 64:262–268. Zalom, F. G., and Fry, W. E. 1992. Biologically intensive IPM for vegetables. Pp. 107-165 in Food, Crop Pests and the Environment, the Need and Potential for Biologically Intensive Integrated Pest Management, F. G. Zalom, and W. E. Fry, eds., St. Paul, Minn.: APS Press.
Representative terms from entire chapter: