1995

1997

Herbicide

Insecticide

Fungicide

Herbicide

Insecticide

Fungicide

74

67

90

75

60

87

97

94

69

91

88

65

63

98

93

60

96

90

92

89

86

58

62

71

66

97

97

54

82

84

 

46

73

84

48

71

24

9

1

44

33

12

65

96

90

57

90

85

61

92

93

61

84

80

83

73

64

78

73

66

67

94

98

78

98

99

48

75

71

74

85

69

54

14

30

53

16

30

82

97

96

73

82

79

73

86

87

67

83

88

Animal-Production Systems

Alternatives to chemical pesticides are few for pest management in animal- production systems. Among the constraints on development of alternatives are mobility of both host animals and pest arthropods, general unavailability of economic-injury threshold data, and lack of competitiveness (in both cost and efficiency) of pesticide alternatives (Campbell 1994). Concerns about nontarget effects through food residues are of little concern, because of the existence of strict Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and FDA regulations. The strict regulatory environment, however, has created reluctance among pesticide producers to invest in new products or to reregister old products (Campbell 1994). Their reluctance translates into a heavy reliance on a relatively small number of control chemicals and concomitantly high potential for resistance acquisition in target species (Campbell 1994). Estimates of the magnitude of environmental impact of many of the control chemicals of choice (including avermectins and their metabolites) are under debate (Wratten and Forbes 1996, Spratt 1997).

In the context of companion-animal pest management, the ready availability of many products and the absence of strict requirements for applicator training contribute to increased health risks to both private consumers and professionals. The Department of Pesticide Regulation of



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