1994

1996

Herbicide

Insecticide

Fungicide

Herbicide

Insecticide

Fungicide

94

66

9

90

74

11

76

71

86

78

71

90

93

50

 

89

35

2

60

100

77

52

98

76

91

58

41

90

72

49

41

45

64

43

41

65

79

81

36

79

89

42

88

76

89

88

83

89

67

96

36

64

96

37

52

94

91

54

93

90

72

34

71

89

40

78

41

82

41

na

na

na

77

48

30

76

36

34

91

70

23

88

56

33

60

79

63

49

75

73

the California Environmental Protection Agency, for example, identified pet grooming facilities as a potential source of problems after several cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in 1995 (California EPA 1997). Investigations revealed that pet groomers in many establishments received virtually no training and regularly immersed their hands in pesticide solutions. Label changes might reduce such exposures.

Urban Pest-Management Systems

Residential pest control is performed or coordinated by consumers to manage nonstructural pests and enhance the value of properties for aesthetic or recreational purposes. Real expenditures for pesticides applied by homeowners were roughly constant from 1979 to 1995 (Templeton et al. 1998). About 12% of households in the United States hired lawn-care companies in 1995; fertilizer or pesticide application was the main service provided by the companies (Templeton et al. 1998). Lawn-care experts indicate that homeowners tend to worry less about costs than about having weed-free lawns. At the same time, some owners of lawn-care companies worry about applicator exposure in residential environments. Although applicator exposures have not generally been well characterized, at least in part because of the unstructured nature of the industry, there are indications that exposures and accompanying health effects are fre



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