Index

A

Academic sector, 14, 145, 267-268, 270-271

organic farming, 114-115

technology transfer, 106-109, 257

see also Land-grant universities;

Professional education

Advanced Technology Program, 10-11, 264

Aesthetic quality, 36-37, 53, 85, 86, 238

Agricultural Health Study, 65

Agricultural Research Service, 14, 28, 109, 164, 167, 259, 268

Air contamination, 63, 69, 72, 74-75, 76-77, 78, 121

ozone layer depletion, 76-77, 189-190, 256

Alien species, see Invasive species

American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 62

Animal studies of pesticide effects, 124, 126

Animal production and transportation systems, 3, 67, 106, 211, 221-223, 239

California, 221, 223

FDA, 20, 221

insecticides, 71

invasive plant species, toxic, 190

professional education, 221

regulation, 221

Annual cropping systems, 211, 212-219

Apples, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47, 53, 68, 85-87, 118, 128, 220-221, 238

organic farming, 85, 87, 113-114, 115-117

Application technologies, 4, 5, 134-135, 146, 154, 179-185

animal production systems, 221

baculoviruses, 161, 162, 163

baits, 37-38, 135, 155, 181, 191

herbicides, 181

human health factors, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 212, 252-253

nontarget species, 5, 179-181

occupational exposures, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 252-253

odorants and dyes, 13, 77, 135-139, 168, 267

precision agriculture, 110, 112, 182-184

protective equipment, 66, 67

R&D recommendations, 5, 8, 253, 258, 260, 262

remote sensing, 183-184

training, 110

urban pest management, 223, 226

Aquaculture, 1, 211, 250

Aquatic habitat, see Water contamination

Assessment methodology, 210, 226-246

decision support systems, 175-186, 268, 269



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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Index A Academic sector, 14, 145, 267-268, 270-271 organic farming, 114-115 technology transfer, 106-109, 257 see also Land-grant universities; Professional education Advanced Technology Program, 10-11, 264 Aesthetic quality, 36-37, 53, 85, 86, 238 Agricultural Health Study, 65 Agricultural Research Service, 14, 28, 109, 164, 167, 259, 268 Air contamination, 63, 69, 72, 74-75, 76-77, 78, 121 ozone layer depletion, 76-77, 189-190, 256 Alien species, see Invasive species American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 62 Animal studies of pesticide effects, 124, 126 Animal production and transportation systems, 3, 67, 106, 211, 221-223, 239 California, 221, 223 FDA, 20, 221 insecticides, 71 invasive plant species, toxic, 190 professional education, 221 regulation, 221 Annual cropping systems, 211, 212-219 Apples, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47, 53, 68, 85-87, 118, 128, 220-221, 238 organic farming, 85, 87, 113-114, 115-117 Application technologies, 4, 5, 134-135, 146, 154, 179-185 animal production systems, 221 baculoviruses, 161, 162, 163 baits, 37-38, 135, 155, 181, 191 herbicides, 181 human health factors, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 212, 252-253 nontarget species, 5, 179-181 occupational exposures, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 252-253 odorants and dyes, 13, 77, 135-139, 168, 267 precision agriculture, 110, 112, 182-184 protective equipment, 66, 67 R&D recommendations, 5, 8, 253, 258, 260, 262 remote sensing, 183-184 training, 110 urban pest management, 223, 226 Aquaculture, 1, 211, 250 Aquatic habitat, see Water contamination Assessment methodology, 210, 226-246 decision support systems, 175-186, 268, 269

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture risk assessment, 5, 9, 123-129, 234-235, 241-242, 254, 255 study at hand, methodology, 2, 250-251 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Registration of pesticides Asthma, 37 Attitudes aesthetic quality of food products, 36-37, 53, 85, 86, 238 workers, 253-254 see also Public opinion Austria, 116 B Bacillus thuringiensis, 148, 149, 157-160, 162, 164, 169, 171, 173, 194-195, 213, 252 market for, 146 registration of, 159-160 resistance to, 58 vegetables, 157-158 Baculoviruses, 156, 160-163 Baits, 37-38, 135, 155, 181, 191 see also Pheromones Barley, 127 Beans, 127, 222-223 Benefit-cost analysis, see Cost-benefit analysis Biochemistry, general, 7, 8, 28 funding, 29, 30 Biocontrols, general, 9, 10, 19-20, 44, 193 combined budget-market models, 49 herbicides, 271 historical perspectives, 24, 25 natural enemies, 19, 23, 25, 27, 44, 82-83, 150, 169 pesticide defined, 19-20 population dynamics, 184 R&D, general, 28, 30, 257 R&D recommendations, 6, 8, 11-12, 256-257, 260, 261 wildland systems, 226 see also Biopesticides; Integrated pest management; Transgenic crops Biodegradability, 19, 156 Biodiversity, 82, 191-192, 226, 242 annual cropping systems, 213 Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265 local, 8, 81, 256 perennial cropping systems, 211 recommendations, 6, 256 see also Nontarget species Biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120 Biopesticide and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD), 11, 265 Biopesticides, 2, 3, 20, 156, 261-267 baculoviruses, 156, 160-163 cost and cost-benefit factors, 156, 158, 161, 162, 231 fungicides, 156, 165-168 herbicides, 20 market for, 145-146, 231 microbial pesticides, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-168, 169, 171, 175 soil, 156, 166-168 see also Bacillus thuringiensis; Integrated pest management; Transgenic crops Biotechnology, 10, 20, 107-108, 152, 252, 258, 261-267 historical perspectives, 25, 27 patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 pests, genetic engineering of, 173-176 see also Biopesticides; Minor crops; Transgenic crops Birds, 80, 82 Broad spectrum pesticides, 24-25, 76, 79, 161, 162, 163-164, 210, 213-214, 219, 224 Bt, see Bacillus thuringiensis C California, 11, 17, 49, 55, 86, 110, 120, 122, 157, 264 animal production systems, 221, 223 historical perspectives, 23, 24 occupational exposures, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77 organic foods, 114, 118 prescription use of restricted pesticides, 134 Canada, 103-104, 118 Cancer, 36, 62, 65, 68-69, 76, 86, 89, 118, 124, 128-129 Canola, 127, 169 Carbon dioxide, 120-121, 186-189 Carson, Rachel, 25

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Cereals, general, 35, 57, 82, 145, 169, 211 see specific cereals Cherries, 118, 220-221 Children, 37-38, 66, 69, 84, 123, 125-126 education of, 14, 268, 269 farm workers/residents, 66 Chile, 103 China, 103, 116 Citrus fruit, 220 fumigation, 54 productivity, pesticide-related, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47 Clean Air Act Amendments, 77 Climate and weather, 185, 211 annual cropping systems, 212, 213 entomopathogenic fungi, 163-164 global warming, 120-121, 187-189 herbicides, 212, 213 human effects, 136 perennial cropping systems, 212 pesticide-related productivity, 44 study at hand, methodology, 2 Cockroaches, 37-38 Colleges and universities, see Academic sector; Land-grant universities Combinatorial chemistry, 177-178 Combined budget-market models, 49, 227 Commodity programs, 110-111, 235 Computer applications, see Databases Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265 Conservation tillage, 36 Consulting services, 109-110, 260, 271 extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271 Containers, see Packaging and containers Convention on Climate Change, see Kyoto protocol Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, 109 Corn, 34, 35, 36, 38, 30, 40, 43-44, 46, 47, 54, 56, 127-128, 145, 148, 188, 193, 212, 213, 216-217, 222-223, 252 Cost and cost-benefit factors, 4, 77, 157, 227-244, 253, 254-255, 262-263 biopesticides, 156, 158, 161, 162, 231 combined budget-market models, 49, 227 discounting, 228, 230, 238, 241, 244 ecological factors, 240, 242-243, 245 EPA, 227 farm worker exposure prevention, 66 food residues, 240-241 globalization and, 103, 256, 259 herbicides, 227, 246, 257 historical perspectives, 24-25 human health, 66, 227-228, 240, 246, 267 market forces, 49, 227, 228-244 microbial pesticides, 158, 161 models of changes in pesticide use, 45, 47-52 nontarget species, 243 occupational exposure, 66, 240, 267 partial-budget models, 45, 47-48, 49, 227 pest resistance to pesticides, 58-59 pesticides, consumer cost of, 33, 36-38, 54, 184-185, 245 private sector, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244 public opinion and, 84-86, 87 regional factors, 45, 48, 49, 50, 234, 229, 231, 232, 233-234, 237, 240, 242, 243, 244 registration requirements, 123, 127, 179 regulation, 45, 47-48, 49, 227-228, 231, 235, 237, 243 substitutes for pesticides, 45, 49 supply and demand, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234-239 (passim) technological innovation, general, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244 temporal factors, 179, 230, 243-244 see also Price factors; Supply and demand Cotton, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42-44, 46, 47, 54, 119, 145, 148, 149, 169, 215-216 Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 83-84, 133-134 Court cases, see Liability and litigation Crop insurance, 12, 54, 266 commodity programs, phase out of, 110-111 ecologically based pest management, 12 Farmers' Risk Management Act, 12, 266 integrated pest management, 12, 266 Crop rotation, 40, 44, 48, 56, 193, 257 Cropping systems, general, 10, 33-34, 48, 184, 270 annual, 211, 212-219 perennial, 211-212 see specific crops Cultural controls, 28, 44, 186, 192, 213 biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture crop rotation, 40, 44, 48, 56, 193, 257 perennial cropping systems, 211 R&D recommendations, 6, 8, 256-257, 260 see also Biocontrols D Dairy products, 68, 111, 114, 123-124, 235 Databases, 109, 122, 125, 126, 128, 130, 177, 185, 271 DDT, 24, 56, 59, 62, 70, 80, 17 Decision support systems, 175-186, 268, 269 Definitional issues agroecosystems, 211 ecologically based pest management (EBMP), 2 pest, 18, 79 pesticide, 2, 17-20, 41, 251 Delaney clause, 70, 123-124 Demand, see Supply and demand Denmark, 139 Dermal exposure, 63, 69, 75 Department of Agriculture, 18, 27, 29 Agricultural Research Service, 14, 28, 109, 164, 167, 259, 268 Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265 cotton, boll weevil eradication, 41 crop loss estimates, 47, 48 entomopathogenic fungi, 163 extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271 food exposures, 68, 69 Forest Service, 161, 164 globalization, research priorities, 103 occupational exposures, 66 on-farm studies, 8, 260 organic farming, 115 pesticide use statistics, 38 R&D funding, 7, 8, 28, 29, 128, 259, 260; resistant pests, 195 technology transfer, 109 urban areas, 89 Department of Commerce, 10-11, 264 Department of Energy, 7, 259 Department of Health and Human Services, 18 see also Food and Drug Administration; National Institutes of Health Department of the Interior, see Geological Survey Developing countries, 103, 105 Disease, see Human health; Plant disease Drugs, 17-18, 19 pharmaceuticals markets, 105 Dyes, see Odorants and dyes E Eastern Europe, 104 EBPM, see Ecologically based pest management (EBPM) Eco-labeling, 6, 88, 115-119, 255 Ecologically based pest management (EBPM), 4, 251, 252-253, 265, 269 crop insurance, 12 defined, 2 R&D recommendations, 10, 259, 264 study at hand, methodology, 2, 3, 29, 250 Ecological factors, general, 12 biodegradability, 19, 156 changes affecting agriculture, 186-192; see also Invasive species Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265 cost-benefit analysis, 240, 242-243, 245 crop insurance, 12 historical perspectives, 25, 27 natural product fungicides, 167 persistence of pesticides, 24, 25, 61, 178 population and community dynamics, 8, 12, 184-185 public opinion, 88 R&D recommendations, 5, 7, 8, 28, 30, 253, 254, 255, 260, 261 stewardship, 5, 12, 120, 255, 262, 265 study at hand, methodology, 1, 2, 4, 250, 251 voluntary environmental protection agreements, 122 see also Air contamination; Biodiversity; Integrated pest management; Nontarget species; Soil contamination; Water contamination; Weather and climate Econometric models, 50-52 Economic factors, 5, 35-37, 44, 102-120, 144-154 academic research, 106-109

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture animal production systems, 221 biotechnology, 10, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 combined budget-market models, 49 commodity programs, 110-111, 235 consumer expenditures on food, 35-36 decentralization and privatization, 102, 106-110, 111 devolution of federal role, 106, 111 eco-labeling, 115-119 environmental concerns and income level, 120 globalization, 6, 102, 103-105, 106, 108, 110-111, 147, 152-153, 197, 256, 259 herbicides, 24, 33, 36, 38-39, 40, 42-43, 46, 145, 152, 153 historical perspectives, 24, 27, 33, 36, 38-43 industrialization, 102, 105-106 knowledge economy, 102, 107, 111-112 consultants, 109-110, 260, 271 patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 organic food market, 6, 10, 88, 102, 113-119, 139, 255-256 partial-budget models, 45, 47-48, 49, 227 privatization, 102, 106-110 product quality enhancements due to pesticides, 53 professional education, 13-14 property damage, 242, 261 recommendations, 5, 6, 8, 253, 254, 255 registration requirements, 123, 127, 179 regulatory requirements, other, 45, 47-48, 49, 102, 103-104, 106, 115-117, 123, 227-228, 231, 235, 237, 243, 261-262 study at hand, methodology, 1, 250 US consumption of and expenditures on pesticides, 24, 33, 36, 38-41, 46, 47-48, 59 weeds, 36 world expenditures on pesticides, 144-145, 152 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Crop insurance; Market forces; Patents; Price factors; Productivity, agricultural; Supply and demand Economic Research Service, 48 Education, see Academic sector; Consulting services; Extension services; Professional education; Public education Employment issues, 119 farm workers, 64-67, 83, 130-139, 212, 265, 266-267 industrialization, 105 see Occupational exposures Endocrine effects humans, 69, 70, 74, 81, 118, 128-130 insects, 25, 56, 163, 194; see also Pheromones Enforcement of regulations, 5, 55, 62-64, 66, 69, 110, 121, 122, 129, 130-131, 212, 243, 254, 258, 262-263, 266 Entomopathogenic fungi, 156, 163-165 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 7, 29, 127, 128, 129, 130, 179, 259, 260, 264-265 animal production systems, 221 cost-benefit analyses, 227 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 2, 17-18, 19-20, 65-66, 120, 128, 251 historical perspectives, 25, 26, 120, 121 household insecticides, 37-38 occupational exposures, 12-13, 66-67, 130-133, 136, 137-138 pesticide defined, 18-19 Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program, 120 reduced-risk pesticides, 3, 154-156, 251 resistant pests, 195 unprocessed foods, 124 urban areas, 89 see also Registration of pesticides Environmental Sciences Institute, 130 Epidemiology, 62, 64-65 Europe baculoviruses, 161 eco-labeling, 115-116 global warming, 188 organic farming, 115-117 taxation, 121 European Union, 103, 104, 139 Evaluation methodology, see Assessment methodology; Decision support systems Evolution of pests, 6-8, 28, 192-197 see also Resistant pests

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Exports, see Globalization; Imports and exports Exposure pathways, see Air contamination; Dermal exposure; Food residues; Occupational contamination; Soil contamination; Water contamination Extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271 F Farm Bill (1990), 121-122 Farm management practices, 44, 265 on-farm studies, 8, 260, 271 stewardship, 5, 12, 120, 255, 262, 265 study at hand. methodology, 2 see also Ecologically based pest management; Integrated pestmanagement Farm workers, 64-67, 83, 130-139, 212, 265, 266-267 Farmers' Risk Management Act, 12, 266 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 18, 123 Federal government, general 10, 243 commodity programs, 110-111, 235 devolution of regulatory authority, 106, 111 product grading standards, 53 R&D, 1, 5, 7-9, 243, 250, 257-267, 276 storage, fumigation, 53-54 see also Funding; Land-grant universities; Legislation; Regulatory issues; specific departments and agencies Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 2, 17-18, 19-20, 65-66, 120, 123, 128, 251 Federal Technology Transfer Act, 109 Fertilizer, 33, 50, 110, 113, 119, 187, 223, 233 FIFRA, see Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Florida, 64, 68, 131, 132 Food and Drug Administration, 7, 18, 27, 68, 69, 125, 259 animal production systems, 20, 221 urban areas, 89 Food prices, 36, 86, 87, 114, 117, 237 Food processing, see Processing of agricultural products Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), 37-38, 70, 123-130, 133, 154-156, 255, 262 Food residues, 8, 15, 28, 61, 63, 67-70, 112, 252-253, 260 animal production systems, 221 animal studies of effects, 124, 126 children, 37-38, 66, 69, 84, 123, 125-126 cost-benefit analysis, 240-241 Department of Agriculture, 68, 69 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), 37-38, 70, 123-130, 133, 154, 156, 255, 262 Food Security Act, 121 foreign countries, regulations, 103-104, 106, 114, 115-117, 120 fungicides, 53, 68-69 metabolic processes, 67-68 organic foods free of, see Eco-labeling; Organic foods product grading standards, 53 public opinion, 84-89 regulatory issues, 53, 37-38, 70, 103-104, 106, 114, 121, 123-130 see also Food and Drug Administration; Public opinion Food Security Act, 121 Foreign countries, see Globalization; Imports and exports; International perspectives; specific countries and regions Forest Service, 161, 164 Forests and forestry, 1, 4, 30, 66, 121, 155, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 168, 183, 186, 188, 190, 211, 226, 250 FQPA, see Food Quality Protection Act France, 116 Fruits, 36, 38, 39, 40, 42-45, 49, 76, 116, 148, 149, 158, 220-221, 250 children, consumption by, 69 citrus fruit, 39, 40 perennial cropping systems, 211 storage, 36, 53-54 product grading standards, 53 see also specific fruits Funding, 10 biochemistry, general, 29, 30 conservation, 12, 122 data collection, 128 Department of Agriculture, 7, 8, 28, 29, 128, 259, 260; see also Agricultural Research Service herbicides, 30

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture historical perspectives, 7, 28, 259 insecticides, general, 29, 30 integrated pest management, 119, 120 metabolic processes, R&D, 29 minor-crop products, 11, 263, 265 National Science Foundation (NSF), R&D funding, 7, 8, 28, 30, 259, 260 occupational exposures, 9, 12-13, 29, 263, 264-265, 266-267 private investment, 7, 10, 11, 106-110, 111-112, 146-154, 178, 234, 257, 258 R&D, general, 7-11 (passim), resistant pests, 29 US-Israeli Fund, 104-105 Fungicides, 35, 148, 149, 150, 220-221, 222-223, 238 biopesticides, 156, 165-168 food residues, 53, 68-69 historical perspectives, 33, 36, 39, 41, 42-43 hypovirulence, 168 integrated pest management, 165-168 natural product fungicides, 167 occupational exposures, 62, 64 resistant pests, 57, 194 resistant plants, 169 storage of agricultural products, 53 transportation of, 62 US use volume and expenditures, 33, 36, 39, 41-43, 46 world expenditures, 145, 152 Fungus-based insecticides, 156, 163-165 Fumigants, 22, 23, 38, 40, 41, 53-54, 55, 76-77, 219 G Gardens, see House and garden uses General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 103 Genetics, 8, 28 insect hybrid sterility, 173 population genetics, 8, 12, 184-185, 195, 246, 260 plant hybrids, 33-34, 191 ultraviolet radiation, 189, 190 see also Biotechnology; Evolution of pests; Resistant pests; Resistant plants; Transgenic crops Genomics, 8, 28, 153, 169, 178 Geological Survey, 78 Geographic factors, see Globalization; International perspectives; Regional factors, national; Regional factors, world Germany, 116 Globalization, 6, 102, 103-105, 106, 108, 147, 152-153, 197, 256, 259 commodity programs, phase out of, 110-111 costs and benefits, 103, 256, 259 Department of Agriculture, research priorities, 103 invasive species, 6, 256 R&D, impact on, 103, 104-105 regulatory issues, 103-104 Global positioning system, 8, 182 Global warming, 120-121, 187-189 Grapes, 114, 118-119, 128, 149, 212 Greenhouse effect, see Global warming H Hartman Report, 87-88 Hay, 127 Health and safety, see Human health; Occupational exposures Herbicides, 38, 39, 148, 212, 214-218, 220-221, 222-223 application technology, 181 biocontrols, general, 271 biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120 biopesticide categories, 20 costs and cost-benefit analysis, 227, 246, 257 conservation tillage, 36 definitional issues, 17 economics, 24, 33, 36, 38-39, 40, 42-43, 46, 145, 152, 153 historical perspectives, 17, 24, 34-35, 57, 59, 270 humidity effects, 212, 213 integrated pest management, 224-225, 270-271 nontarget species, 81, 82 occupational exposures, 60-61, 138, 137, 138 photosynthesis, 81 paraquat, 60-61, 75, 137, 138

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture population dynamics, 184 R&D funding, 30 regulation of, 124, 138 resistant pests, 57, 59, 152, 192-193, 257 timing of application, 224-225, 271 US use volume and expenditures, 24, 33, 36, 38-39, 40, 42-43, 46 wildland systems, 226 world expenditures, 145, 152 Historical perspectives, 20-28, 33-35, 40, 177, 192-193 biocontrols, general, 24, 25 biotechnology, 25, 27 California, 23, 24 commodity programs, phase out of, 110-111 cost and cost-benefit analysis, 24-25 crop loss estimates, 47-48 ecological factors, general, 25, 27 economic factors, general, 24, 27, 33, 36, 38-43 EPA, 25, 26, 120, 121 funding, 7, 27, 28, 259 fungicides, 33, 36, 39, 41, 42-43 genetic engineering of pests, 173-174 herbicides, 17, 24, 34-35, 57, 59, 270 industrialization, 102, 105-106 insecticides, 17, 22-26, 34, 35, 40-43, 57 nontarget species, 25, 80 persistence of pesticides, 24, 25 pesticide defined, 17, 251 pesticide registration, 70, 71 productivity, agricultural, 33-35 public opinion, 25, 120 R&D, 7, 27, 28, 259 regulatory measures, 70, 71, 120-121, 124, 251; see also Legislation resistant pests, 25, 33, 56-57, 193 technological innovation, general, 21-27, 105-106 transgenic crops, 27, 106, 172 US consumption of and expenditures on pesticides, 24, 33, 36, 38-43 Hormones, see Endocrine effects House and garden uses, 33, 36-38, 63, 89, 137-138, 145, 149, 164 Human health, 4, 30, 60-78, 129 air contamination, 63, 69, 72, 74-75, 76- animal production systems, 221 animal studies, 124, 126 application technologies, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 212, 252-253 asthma, 37 cancer, 36, 62, 65, 68-69, 76, 86, 89, 118, 124, 128-129 cost-benefit analysis, 66, 227-228, 240, 246, 267 dermal exposure, 63, 69, 75 endocrine effects, 69, 70, 74, 81, 118, 128-130 epidemiology, 62, 64-65 fumigants, 53-54, 55, 76-77 house and garden pests and pesticides, 37-38 insecticides, 62, 60-64, 69, 70, 74, 76, 81, 118, 128-130 malaria, 173 minor crops, 11, 12-13, 66, 133, 263, 264-265, 266-267 product quality enhancements due to pesticides, 52-54 R&D recommendations, 6, 9, 253, 256, 260 reduced-risk pesticides, 2-3, 154-156, 251 soil contamination, 70, 72-73, 118, 178-179 stinging hymenopterans, 38 study at hand, methodology, 1, 3, 4, 31, 250, 251 urban pest management, 89, 223, 226, 250 weather effects vs pesticide effects, 136 see also Children; Food residues; Occupational exposures; Public opinion; Water contamination Hypovirulence, 168 I Illegal pesticide uses, 69 Imports and exports, 35, 50, 68, 237, 256 eco-labeling, 115 European Union, 103, 104, 139 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 103 genetically modified organisms, regulations, 104 North American Free Trade Agreement, 103 organic foods, 114 regional trading blocks, 103, 104, 139

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture see also Globalization Information dissemination, see Consulting services; Databases; Extension services; Professional education; Public education Ingestion, see Food residues Inhalation, see Air contamination Innovation, see Technological innovation Insecticides, general, 214-218, 220-221, 222-223, 246 animal production, 71 annual cropping systems, general, 212 baits, 37-38, 135, 155, 181, 191 biopesticides, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-165 definitional issues, 2, 17-20 (passim) DDT, 24, 56, 59, 62, 70, 80, 17 endocrine effects, humans, 69, 70, 74, 81, 118, 128-130 endocrine effects, insects, 25, 56, 163, 194; see also Pheromones entomopathogenic fungi, 156, 163-165 EPA, 37-38 funding, 29, 30 historical perspectives, 17, 22-26, 34, 35, 40-43, 57 household uses, 37-38 human health effects, 62, 60-64, 69, 70, 74, 76, 81, 118, 128-130 market forces, 3, 24, 33, 36, 38-41, 46, 47-48, 59, 148, 149, 246 microbial, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-165, 169 viral, 151, 156, 159, 160-163, 168, 169, 171, 175 see also Bacillus thuringiensis nontarget species, 80-81, 82-83, 213 occupational exposures, 60-64 (passim) organophosphates, 59, 60, 61, 64, 80, 117, 127, 129 persistence in environment, 24, 61 R&D funding, 29, 30 resistant pests, 55-56, 57-58, 59, 194-197 resistant plants, 34, 44, 48, 152, 175, 168-169, 170-171, 173, 193-194, 224, 256 risk avoidance, 54 TCCD, 62 transportation of, 62 urban areas, 89, 223, 226, 250 US use volume and expenditures, 24, 36, 39, 40-43, 46 viral, 151, 156, 159, 160-163, 168, 169, 171, 175 world expenditures, 145, 152 Insect pheromones, see Pheromones Insurance, see Crop insurance Integrated Agricultural Producers, 154 Integrated food production systems Europe, 115-116 New Zealand, 117 Integrated pest management (IPM), 40, 118-119, 133, 139, 213 Advanced Technology Program, 10-11, 264 biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120 crop insurance, 12, 266 cultural controls, 119-120 eco-labeling, 115, 118-119 entomopathogenic fungi, 163-164 funding, 119, 120 fungicides, 165-168 labeling and consumer preference, 88 herbicides, 224-225, 270-271 microbial pesticides, 156-163 prescription use of restricted pesticides, 122, 133-134 professional education, 119 R&D, 5, 10-11, 119-120, 254, 255, 259, 264 resistant pests, 195 resistant plants, 168-169, 170-171, 173 urban areas, 89 weeds, 224-225, 270-271 Intellectual property, see Knowledge economy; Patents International Biosafety Conference, 104 International Life Sciences Institute, 130 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, 105 International perspectives eco-labeling, 115-116 food residue regulations, 103-104, 106, 114, 115-117, 120 globalization, 6, 102, 103-105, 106, 108, 110-111, 147, 152-153, 197, 256, 259 global warming, 120-121, 187-189 ozone layer depletion, 76-77, 189-190, 256 public opinion of risks, 84 public opinion of transgenic crops, 88

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture R&D, cooperative efforts, 104-105 world expenditures on pesticides, 145, 152 see also Imports and exports; Regional factors, world; specific countries and regions Interregional Research Project 4 (IR4), 11, 264 International Rice Research Initiative, 105 Invasive species, 190-191 globalization, 6, 256 livestock, toxic to, 190 photosynthesis, 190 resistance to pesticides, 58, 197 IPM, see Integrated pest management IR4, see Interregional Project 4 (IR4) Israel, 104-105 Italy, 116 J Japan, 103-104, 116 K Knowledge economy, 102, 107, 111-112 consultants, 109-110, 260, 271 patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 see also Technology transfer Kyoto protocol, 120-121 L Labeling, 127 eco-labeling, 6, 88, 115-119, 255 pesticides, general, 62, 271 Land-grant universities, 13-14, 15, 27, 268, 269 extension services, 14, 109-110 Language factors farm workers, 65 labeling, 62 Latin America, 103 Legal issues illegal pesticide uses, 69 liability and litigation, 121, 129 patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 Legislation, 24 Clean Air Act Amendments, 77 education of legislators, 17 Farm Bill (1990), 121-122 Farmers' Risk Management Act, 12, 266 Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 18, 123 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), 2, 17-18, 19-20, 65-66, 120, 123, 128, 251 Federal Technology Transfer Act, 109 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA), 37-38, 70, 123-130, 133, 154, 156, 255, 262 Food Security Act, 121 foreign countries, 139 foreign trade, 103 Stevenson Wydler Act, 109 see also Regulatory issues Liability and litigation, 121, 129 Livestock, see Animal production and transportation systems Local governments, 111, 262 M Maize, see Corn Malaria, 173 Market forces, 144-147, 152-154, 257 Bt, 146 biopesticides, 145-146, 231 combined budget-market models, 49, 227 commodity programs, phase out of, 110 cost-benefit analysis, 49, 227, 228-244 globalization, 6, 102, 103-105, 106, 108, 147, 152-153, 197, 256, 259 insecticides, 3, 24, 33, 36, 38-41, 46, 47- organic food market, 6, 10, 88, 102, 113- pest resistance to pesticides, 59-60 pharmaceuticals markets, 105 technological innovation, 102, 107-112, 147, 227, 228-244; see also Technology transfer tradable permit systems, 12, 121, 262, 265 US consumption of and expenditures on pesticides, 24, 33, 36, 38-41, 46, 47-48, 59

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture world expenditures on pesticides, 144-145, 152 see also Imports and exports; Price factors; Supply and demand Mass media, 9, 261 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 106 Metabolic processes, 19, 221 food residues, 67-68 R&D funding, 29 see also Biodegradability Methyl bromide, 76-77 Mexico, 103, 158 Michigan, 118 Microbial pesticides, 19, 20, 58, 156-168 cost and cost-benefit analysis, 158, 161 entomopathogenic fungi, 163-165 fungicides, 156, 165-168 hypovirulence, 168 insecticides, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-165, 169 viral, 151, 156, 159, 160-163, 168, 169, 171, 175 integrated pest management, 156-163 see also Bacillus thuringiensis Middle East, 104 Mildew, 148, 149 Milk and milk products, see Dairy products Minor crops funding, 11, 263, 265 R&D, 5, 10, 11, 153, 156, 254, 263-264, 265, 268 registration issues, 11, 127, 128, 129, 133, 264-266 occupational exposures, 11, 12-13, 66, 133, 263, 264-265, 266-267 Montana, 219 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 77 Multinationals, see Globalization N Narrow-spectrum pesticides, 2, 80, 191, 194 paraquat, 60-61, 75, 137, 138 National Agricultural Statistics Service, 66 National Cancer Institute, 65 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 65, 131 National Institute of Environmental Health and Safety, 65 National Institutes of Health, 7, 65, 259 National Organic Standards Program, 115 National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program, 7, 259 National Science Foundation (NSF), R&D funding, 7, 8, 28, 30, 259, 260 National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 78 Natural enemies, 19, 23, 25, 44, 82-83, 150, 169 transgenic, 27, 252 Natural Foods Merchandiser, 87 Natural selection, see Evolution of pests; Resistant pests; Resistant plants Nematodes, 2, 19, 55, 76, 150, 156, 170 Netherlands, 139 New Animal Drug Application, 20 New York State, 118 New Zealand, 116-117 Non-native species, see Invasive species Nontarget species, 3, 4, 6, 60, 78-83, 178, 179, 213, 253 application technologies, 5, 179-181 birds, 80, 82 broad spectrum pesticides, 24-25, 76, 79, 161, 162, 163-164, 210, 213-214, 219, 224 cost-benefit analysis, 243 eco-labeling, 118 herbicides, 81, 82 historical perspectives, 25, 80 insecticides, 80-81, 82-83, 213 microorganisms and invertebrates, 19, 82, 83 natural enemies, 19, 23, 25, 27, 44, 82-83, 150, 169 natural product fungicides, 167 pollinators, 82, 83 R&D recommendations, 5, 6, 254, 256, 258 study at hand, methodology, 3, 4, 250 wildland systems, 226 see also Human health North Africa, 104 North American Free Trade Agreement, 103 North Dakota, 40, 219 NRI, see National Research Initiative Competitive Grants Program Nuts, 119-120, 168

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture O Oats, 127 Occupational exposures, 4-5, 9, 60-67, 119, 130-139, 252-253 application technologies, 4, 62-63, 66-67, 181-182, 252-253 attitudes of workers, 253-254 California, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77 cost-benefit analysis, 66, 240, 267 Department of Agriculture, 66 education on, 66-67 EPA, 12-13, 66-67, 130-133, 136, 137-138 farm workers, 64-67, 83, 130-139, 212, 265, 266-267 funding, 9, 12-13, 29, 263, 264-265, 266-267 fungicides, 62, 64 herbicides, 60-61, 138, 137, 138 insecticides, 60-64 (passim) manufacturing workers, 60-62 minor crops, 11, 12-13, 66, 133, 263, 264-265, 266-267 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 65, 131 odorants and dyes to identify toxicity, 13, 77, 135-139, 168, 267 protective equipment, 66, 67 R&D funding, 9, 12-13, 29, 263, 264-265, 266-267 regional factors, 63-64, 132 regulation of, 4-5, 12-13, 61-62, 66-67, 130-139, 253-254, 262-263, 266-267 state government, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77, 130-132 urban pest management, 223, 226 weather effects vs pesticide effects, 136 Worker Protection Standards (WPS), 12-13, 66-67, 130-133, 136, 262-263, 266-267 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 62 Odorants and dyes, 13, 77, 135-139, 168, 267 Oil crops, 40, 44, 145 Oklahoma, 219 On-farm studies, 8, 260, 271 Oregon, 113, 119 Organic foods, 6, 10, 85, 87, 113-119, 139, 255-256 academic sector, 114-115 apples, 85, 87, 113-114, 115-117 California, 114, 118 Department of Agriculture, 115 Europe, 115-117 foreign trade, 114 R&D, 115-116 regulations, 6, 115-116, 255-256 supply and demand, 87, 88, 113, 114, 116-117 see also Eco-labeling Organophosphates, 59, 60, 61, 64, 80, 117, 127, 129 Ozone layer depletion, 76-77, 189-190, 256 see also Ultraviolet radiation P Packaging and containers, 63, 134-135 see also Labeling Paraquat, 60-61, 75, 137, 138 Partial-budget models, 45, 47-48, 49, 227 Patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 Peanuts, 36, 111 Pears, 117, 118 Perennial cropping systems, 211-212 Persistence of pesticides, 8, 28, 178 biodegradability, 19, 156 historical perspectives, 24, 25 insecticides, 24, 61 see also Food residues Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program, 120 Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children, 123, 125, 252-253 Petrochemical industry, 105, 108 Pharmaceuticals, see Drugs Pheromones, 20, 22, 25, 44, 56, 81, 145, 158, 162, 192, 194, 150, 162 Photosynthesis atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, 186-187 herbicides, 81 invasive species, 190 Plant disease, 35 viral, 20, 148 see also Fungi and fungicides Poland, 116 Pollinators, nontarget species, 82, 83 Population genetics, 8, 12, 184-185, 195, 246, 260 Potatoes, 35, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42-44, 46, 47, 54, 82, 118, 128, 169, 213, 217-218

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Precision agriculture, 8, 110, 112, 182-184 Predators, see Natural enemies Prescription use of restricted pesticides, 122, 133-134 Price factors, 51, 52, 53, 85, 110, 154, 227, 228, 231-232, 235-239 (passim), energy, 44 federal supports, 110-111, 235 food, 36, 86, 87, 114, 117, 237 inflation, 35, 44 partial budget models, 45, 48, 49 technological innovation and, 111-112, 237 see also Supply and demand Private sector, general cost-benefit analysis, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244 patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 R&D investment, 7, 10, 11, 106-110, 111-112, 146-154, 178, 234, 257, 258, 259, 263, 264 see also Knowledge economy Privatization, 102, 106-110 commodity programs, phase out of, 110 extension services (USDA), 14, 109-110 technology transfer, 106-108 Processing of agricultural products, 69-70 industrialization, 105, 106 regulation of, 70, 123-124 study at hand, methodology, 1, 250 vertical integration, 152 see also Storage; Transportation Productivity, agricultural, 5, 38, 41, 44-52, 234, 239, 243, 244, 251 citrus fruit, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47 combined budget-market models, 49 econometric models, 50-52 globalization and, 103 historical perspectives, 33-35 partial-budget models, 45, 47-48, 49 pest resistance to pesticides, 58-59 projections, 35-36 sustainability vs, 14 technology transfer and, 108 Professional education, 5, 13-14, 133, 134, 243, 258, 267-269 animal production systems, 221 consultants, 109-110, 260, 271 extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271 integrated pest management, 119 occupational exposures, 66-67 risk factors, 13-14, 268, 269 supply and demand for, 13 see also Academic sector; Land-grand universities Projections crop yield, 35-36 study at hand, methodology, 2, 251, 277 Property damage, 242, 261 Protective equipment, 66, 67 Public education, 9, 13, 14-15, 27, 89, 243, 254, 267 elementary and secondary, 14, 268, 269 occupational exposures, 66-67 risk communication, 9, 261, 268 study at hand, methodology, 1 Public opinion, 3, 13, 83-89, 104, 120, 268 aesthetic quality of food products, 36-37, 53, 85, 86, 238 costs and cost-benefit analysis, 84-86, 87 historical perspectives, 25, 120 international, 84, 88 mass media, 9, 261 pesticide defined, 17, 18 research recommendations, 8-9, 261 risk factors, 8-9, 83-85, 268 voluntary environmental protection agreements, 122 urban pest-management systems, 89 R Rangelands, 66, 211, 226 Reduced-risk pesticides, 2-3, 154-156, 251 Regional factors, national, 213 cost-benefit analysis, 45, 48, 49, 50, 234, 229, 231, 232, 233-234, 237, 240, 242, 243, 244 crop rotation, 56 devolution of federal power, 106, 111 extension and research, 271 occupational exposures, 63-64, 132 pesticide substitution, 41, 44 pesticides, intensity of use, 211-212, 262 tradable permit systems, 262, 265 Regional factors, world biodiversity, 192 pesticide market, 145 tropical, 164, 186, 188 trading blocks, 103, 104, 139 see also specific countries and regions

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture Registration of pesticides, 18, 70, 71, 77, 121, 212-124, 127-130, 194, 219 animal production systems, 221 baculoviruses, 163 Bt, 159-160 costs, 123, 127, 179 historic perspectives, 70, 71 minor-crop products, 11, 127, 128, 129, 133, 264-266 recommendations, 5, 11, 254 reduced-risk pesticides, 2-3, 154-156 redundancy, 11, 264 study at hand, methodology, 1, 3, 250, 277 technology transfer and, 108 time factors, 11, 179, 264-265 Regulatory issues, 9, 27, 120-139, 176, 212, 252, 261 animal production systems, 221 devolution of federal role, 106, 111 cost-benefit analyses, 45, 47-48, 49, 227-228, 231, 235, 237, 243 enforcement, 5, 55, 62-64, 66, 69, 110, 121, 122, 129, 130-131, 212, 243, 254, 258, 262-263, 266 economic factors, 45, 47-48, 49, 102, 103-104, 106, 115-117, 123, 227-228, 231, 235, 237, 243, 261-262 food residues, 53, 37-38, 70, 103-104, 106, 114, 121, 123-130 foreign countries/international organizations, 103-104, 106, 114, 115-117, 120 globalization, 103-104 herbicides, 124, 138 historical perspectives, 70, 71, 120-121, 124, 251; see also Legislation household insecticides, 37-38 illegal pesticide uses, 69 incentives, 9, 11, 12, 19, 121, 122, 258 occupational exposures, 4-5, 12-13, 61-62, 66-67, 130-139, 253-254, 262-263, 266-267 organic products, 6, 115-116, 255-256 pesticide defined, 1, 17-18 prescription use of restricted pesticides, 122, 133-134 processing of agricultural products, 70, 123-124 product grading standards, 53 public opinion of, 83 recommendations, 5, 10, 258 socioeconomic changes and, 102 study at hand, methodology, 3, 251, 277 tradable permit systems, 12, 121, 262, 265 unprocessed foods, 70, 123-124 water quality, 121-122 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Food and Drug Administration; Legislation; Registration of pesticides; Tradable permit systems Remote sensing, 183-184 Research and development, 148-197 academic sector, 14, 106-109, 114-115, 145, 257, 267-268, 270-271 Agricultural Research Service, 14, 28, 109, 164, 167, 259 alternatives to chemical pesticides, 6 animal studies of pesticide effects, 124, 126 application technologies, 5, 8, 253, 258, 260, 262 biocontrols, general, 6, 8, 11-12, 28, 30, 256-257, 260, 261 cultural controls, 6, 8, 256-257, 260 databases, 109, 122, 125, 126, 128, 130, 185, 271 decentralization of efforts, 106-108, 109-110 Department of Agriculture, 7, 8, 28, 29, 128, 259, 260 ecological factors, general, 5, 7, 8, 28, 30, 253, 254, 255, 260, 261 ecologically based pest management (EBPM), 10, 259, 264 federal government, general, 1, 5, 7-9, 243, 250, 257-267, 276 funding, general, 7-11 (passim),; see also Funding genomics, 8, 28, 153 globalization, impact on, 103, 104-105 historical perspectives, 7, 27, 28, 259 human health, 6, 9, 253, 256, 260 insecticides, 29, 30 integrated pest management, 5, 10-11, 119-120, 254, 255, 259, 264 international cooperation, 104-105 knowledge economy, 102, 107, 111-112 consultants, 109-110, 260, 271

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 land-grant universities, 13-14, 15, 27, 109-110, 268, 269 metabolic processes, 29 minor crops, 5, 10, 11, 153, 156, 254, 263, 265, 268, 263-264 National Science Foundation (NSF), 7, 8, 28, 30, 259, 260 nontarget species, 5, 6, 254, 256, 258 occupational exposures, 9, 12-13, 29, 263, 264-265, 266-267 on-farm studies, 8, 260, 271 organic farming, 115-116 pest resistance to pesticides, 59 private sector, cost-benefit analysis, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244 investment, 7, 10, 11, 106-110, 111- patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 public opinion, 8-9, 261 recommendations, 5-15 (passim), regional factors, 271 resistant pests, 6-7, 8, 29, 253, 256-257 study at hand, methodology, 1-2, 210, 251-252 US-Israeli cooperation agreement, 104-105 see also Technological innovation; Technology transfer; Transgenic crops Residues, see Food residues Resistant pests, 55-60, 118, 152, 168, 176, 193-197, 224 animal production systems, 221 fungi, 57, 194 herbicides, 57, 59, 152, 192-193, 257 historical perspectives, 25, 33, 56-57, 193 insects, 55-56, 57-58, 59, 194-197 integrated pest management, 195 invasive species, 58, 197 market forces and, 59-60 R&D funding, 29 R&D recommendations, 6-7, 8, 253, 256-257 study at hand, methodology, 3-4 transgenic crops, 195 Resistant plants, 2, 34, 44, 48, 152, 175, 168-169, 193-194, 224, 256 fungicides, 169 integrated pest management, 168-169, 170-171, 173 weeds, 57, 59, 152, 192-193, 257 see also Transgenic crops Rice, 57, 105, 114, 116, 127, 145, 149, 153, 155, 165, 188, 193, 197 Risk communication, 9, 261, 268 Risk factors, 5 animal studies, 124, 126 assessment methodology, 5, 9, 123-129, 234-235, 241-242, 254, 255 crop losses, 54-55 house and garden pesticides, 37-38 professional education, 13-14, 268, 269 public opinion, 8-9, 83-85, 268 reduced-risk pesticides, 3, 154-156, 251 study at hand, methodology, 3, 4 see also Air contamination; Human health; Resistant pests; Soil contamination; Water contamination Row crops, general, 25, 39, 153, 211, 224, 225 see also specific crops Rye, 127 S Satellite technology global positioning system, 8, 182 remote sensing, 183-184 Scandinavia, 121 Scouting, 44, 54 Seeds and seedlings, 192-193 biopesticides, 156 plant resistance, 169 vertical integration of industry, 147, 152 Silent Spring, 25 Small and medium-sized companies, 11 Social factors, 102, 251 alternative pesticides, 5 definition of pesticide, 2 federal protections, 111 recommendations, 5, 253, 254, 262 see also Public education; Public opinion Soil, 2, 115, 185, 232 biopesticides, 156, 166-168 conservation, 38

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture s fertilizer, 33, 50, 110, 113, 119, 187, 223, 233 fumigants, 34, 38, 40, 41, 55, 76 see also Organic foods Soil contamination, 70, 72-73, 118, 178-179 Sorghum, 127 South Dakota, 219 Soybeans, 38, 39, 40, 42-44, 46, 47, 54, 56, 128, 148, 188-189, 193, 212, 215 Spatial factors, 8 precision agriculture, 8, 110, 112, 182- see also Population dynamics Specialty crops, see Minor crops Standards, see Regulatory issues State government, 262 devolution of regulatory authority to, 106, 111 minor crops, 11 occupational exposures, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77, 130-132 product grading standards, 53 see also specific states Stevenson Wydler Act, 109 Stewardship, 5, 12, 120, 255, 262, 265 Storage, 1, 53-54, 211, 219 fungicides, 53 household pesticides, 37 perishable crops, 36 pesticides, 37, 62, 53-54 Supply and demand competition in pesticide market, 108, 231 cost-benefit analysis, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234-239 (passim) crop insurance, 54 data on pesticides, 130 federal commodity programs, 110 food products, 27, 38, 49, 50, 53, 70, 85, 110, 125, 219, 255 organic foods, 87, 88, 113, 114, 116- land, 44, 113 pesticides, 51, 103, 108, 130, 191, 193, 229, 230, 231, 232, 234-238 (passim) professional education, 13 see also Price factors; Productivity, agricultural Sweden, 139 Switzerland, 117 T Taxation, 12, 121, 243 TCDD, 62, 81 Technological innovation, 2, 3, 106-109, 148-197, 252 academic sector, 106-109, 257 Advanced Technology Program, 10-11, 264 biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120 cost-benefit analysis, 45, 47-52, 123, 127, 179, 227-244 crop yield projections and, 36 historical perspectives, 21-27, 105-106 knowledge economy, 102, 107, 111-112 consultants, 109-110, 260, 271 patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 market forces, 102, 107-112, 147, 227, 228-244 precision agriculture, 8, 110, 112, 182-184 satellite technology, 8, 182, 183-184 see also Application technologies; Biopesticides; Biotechnology; Research and development; Transgenic crops Technology transfer, 27 academic sector, 106-109, 257 decentralization of R&D efforts, 106-108, 109-110 extension services, 14, 109-110, 132, 243, 260, 268, 271 international, 104-105 patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257 privatization and, 106-108 productivity and, 108 registration of pesticides, 108 Technology Transfer Information Systems, 109 Temporal factors, 8 application technologies, evaporation, 180 biocontrol agents, long-term effects, 11-12 biodegradability, 19, 156 cost-benefit analysis, 179, 230, 243-244 persistence of pesticides in environment, 8, 19, 24, 25, 28, 61, 156, 178 registration of pesticides, 11, 179, 264-265 study, scope of, 2, 251, 277

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The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture weed control timing, 224-225, 271 see also Historical perspectives; Population dynamics Texas, 68, 219 Tobacco, 39, 111 Tomatoes, 82, 113-114, 128, 158, 222 Total Diet Study, 69 Tradable permit systems, 12, 121, 262, 265 Trade, see Globalization; Imports and exports; Market forces Transgenic crops, 115, 148, 150-151, 152, 168-173, 252, 265 Bacillus thuringiensis, resistance to, 58 eco-labeling, 115 foreign countries, regulations, 104 fungicides, 62 historical perspectives, 27, 106, 172 projections for extent of, 251 public opinion, 88 resistant pests, 195 study at hand, methodology, 2, 3-4, 251 Transgenic natural enemies, 27, 252 Transportation crops, 1, 36, 38 pesticides, 62 Tropical regions, 164, 186, 188 U Ultraviolet radiation, 76-77, 162, 189-190, 256 United Nations International Biosafety Conference, 104 Universities and colleges, see Academic sector; Land-grant universities Urban areas integrated pest management, 89 mass media, 9, 261 occupational exposures, 223, 226 pest-management systems, 89, 223, 226, 250 US-Israeli Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund, 104-105 V Vegetables, 36, 38, 40, 41, 42-45, 46, 47, 49, 76, 113-114, 116, 118, 148-149, 213, 219, 222-223, 250 Bt, 157-158 product grading standards, 53 public opinion, 84 scouting, 54 storage, 36, 53-54 see also specific vegetables Viruses baculoviruses, 156, 160-163 human, 136 hypovirulence, 168 insect, 151, 156, 159, 160-163, 168, 169, 171, 175 plant, 20, 148 Voluntary environmental protection agreements, 122 W Washington State, 84, 118, 132, 161, 212 Water contamination, 23, 61, 69, 70, 72-74, 77, 78, 80, 87, 118, 178, 190, 211, 226 regulatory actions, 121-122 Weather, see Climate and weather Weeds, 21, 34, 36, 41, 44 atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, 187 biocontrol, 12, 41, 82-83, 175 global warming, 188 integrated pest management, 224-225, 270-271 resistant pests, 57, 59, 152, 192-193, 257 population dynamics, 184-185 timing of control measures, 224-225, 271 see also Herbicides Weed Society of America, 36 Wetlands, 122 Wheat, 34-35, 36, 38, 39, 42-44, 46, 47, 54, 127, 188, 212-213, 214-215 Wildland systems, 211, 226 rangelands, 66, 211, 226 see also Forests and forestry Wildlife, see Biodiversity; Birds; Invasive species; Nontarget species Wine, 114, 118-119 Wisconsin, 118 World Wildlife Fund, 118 Worker Protection Standards (WPS), 12-13, 66-67, 130-133, 136, 262, 266-267 Workers, see Employment issues; Farm workers; Occupational exposures Y Yield, see Productivity, agricultural