risk assessment, 5, 9, 123-129, 234-235, 241-242, 254, 255

study at hand, methodology, 2, 250-251

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors;

Registration of pesticides

Asthma, 37

Attitudes

aesthetic quality of food products, 36-37, 53, 85, 86, 238

workers, 253-254

see also Public opinion

Austria, 116

B

Bacillus thuringiensis, 148, 149, 157-160, 162, 164, 169, 171, 173, 194-195, 213, 252

market for, 146

registration of, 159-160

resistance to, 58

vegetables, 157-158

Baculoviruses, 156, 160-163

Baits, 37-38, 135, 155, 181, 191

see also Pheromones

Barley, 127

Beans, 127, 222-223

Benefit-cost analysis, see Cost-benefit analysis

Biochemistry, general, 7, 8, 28

funding, 29, 30

Biocontrols, general, 9, 10, 19-20, 44, 193

combined budget-market models, 49

herbicides, 271

historical perspectives, 24, 25

natural enemies, 19, 23, 25, 27, 44, 82-83, 150, 169

pesticide defined, 19-20

population dynamics, 184

R&D, general, 28, 30, 257

R&D recommendations, 6, 8, 11-12, 256-257, 260, 261

wildland systems, 226

see also Biopesticides;

Integrated pest management;

Transgenic crops

Biodegradability, 19, 156

Biodiversity, 82, 191-192, 226, 242

annual cropping systems, 213

Conservation Reserve Program, 12, 122, 262, 265

local, 8, 81, 256

perennial cropping systems, 211

recommendations, 6, 256

see also Nontarget species

Biointegral farming/orchard systems, 119-120

Biopesticide and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD), 11, 265

Biopesticides, 2, 3, 20, 156, 261-267

baculoviruses, 156, 160-163

cost and cost-benefit factors, 156, 158, 161, 162, 231

fungicides, 156, 165-168

herbicides, 20

market for, 145-146, 231

microbial pesticides, 19, 20, 58, 146, 148, 156-168, 169, 171, 175

soil, 156, 166-168

see also Bacillus thuringiensis;

Integrated pest management;

Transgenic crops

Biotechnology, 10, 20, 107-108, 152, 252, 258, 261-267

historical perspectives, 25, 27

patents, 107-108, 111-112, 147, 231, 232, 257

pests, genetic engineering of, 173-176

see also Biopesticides;

Minor crops;

Transgenic crops

Birds, 80, 82

Broad spectrum pesticides, 24-25, 76, 79, 161, 162, 163-164, 210, 213-214, 219, 224

Bt, see Bacillus thuringiensis

C

California, 11, 17, 49, 55, 86, 110, 120, 122, 157, 264

animal production systems, 221, 223

historical perspectives, 23, 24

occupational exposures, 56, 63-64, 68, 74, 77

organic foods, 114, 118

prescription use of restricted pesticides, 134

Canada, 103-104, 118

Cancer, 36, 62, 65, 68-69, 76, 86, 89, 118, 124, 128-129

Canola, 127, 169

Carbon dioxide, 120-121, 186-189

Carson, Rachel, 25



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