pesticide application on the farm (defined broadly) must be posted in a central, accessible location.

  • Pesticide-safety training must be provided to each pesticide handler and agricultural worker at least once every 5 years.

  • Decontamination sites must be established within.025 mile of all workers and handlers.

  • Commercial pesticide operators must inform the agricultural establishment of all facts regarding pesticide applications on the agricultural establishment property.

  • Emergency assistance must be given to any employee who is poisoned or injured by a pesticide, and facts about the exposure must be given to medical personnel.

  • Only appropriately trained and equipped handlers may enter treated areas during the restricted-entry interval (REI). The REIs for class I, II, III and IV pesticides are 48, 24, 12, and 12 hours, respectively.

  • Workers must receive oral or written warnings of pesticide application, depending on the pesticide label.

  • Warning signs must be posted before pesticide application and must be removed within 3 days after the end of the REI.

  • Spray equipment and personal protective equipment (PPE) must be cared for and be disposed of in accordance with specific rules (for example, all PPE must be stored and washed separately from other clothing).

Further discussion of the WPS guidelines, and of issues of compliance and the potential for improvement of the guidelines can be found in the last major section of Chapter 3.

Food Residues

Although the important contribution of pesticides to world food production cannot be ignored (Klassen 1995), exposure to residues from their use is a continuing concern. Pesticide residues can occur in food as a result of treatment of a food crop or food animal with pesticides, of inadvertent contact with the chemical through exposure to air or water contaminated with the chemical, or in the case of food animals, of consumption of feed contaminated with the chemical. The amount of residue encountered in these situations is a complex function of such factors as the treatment rate or contact level, the physical and chemical properties of the pesticide, the time between exposure to the pesticide and harvest of the crop or food animal, and the processing or other treatment of the food commodity prior to its consumption as human food. A complicating factor is the decomposition of the parent pesticide to one or more metabo

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