14
Geography and Opportunity

Manuel Pastor, Jr.

Place matters. Throughout the last several decades, this simple statement has driven much of the research and policy regarding race in America. Investigations of minority unemployment, for example, have often focused on issues of spatial mismatch; research on community social capital has queried about the health of such capital in areas of concentrated poverty; policy on environmental clean-up has recognized that hazards are disproportionately located in minority neighborhoods.

This paper looks at these concerns in terms of geographic distribution of economic and environmental opportunity in major urban areas. The central argument is that historic patterns of suburbanization have contributed to both racial and income inequality. Resources and economic dynamism have abandoned central cities, where most racial minorities live, leaving diminished community structures and hazardous waste in their wake. The resulting racially and socially disparate character of cities and suburbs, and the increasing importance of the suburbs in national voting, has led to a declining political will to deal with poverty, race, and urban decline.

Several recent trends, however, may offer a way out of this pessimistic policy box. First, suburbs themselves are changing. There is an increasing minority presence in suburbs, and many of the older, “inner-ring” suburbs are experiencing economic stresses and, hence, have interests similar to those of their adjacent central cities. Second, the emergent “new regionalism” or “smart growth” framework emphasizes the economic complementarity of cities and suburbs within regions, and gives



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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I 14 Geography and Opportunity Manuel Pastor, Jr. Place matters. Throughout the last several decades, this simple statement has driven much of the research and policy regarding race in America. Investigations of minority unemployment, for example, have often focused on issues of spatial mismatch; research on community social capital has queried about the health of such capital in areas of concentrated poverty; policy on environmental clean-up has recognized that hazards are disproportionately located in minority neighborhoods. This paper looks at these concerns in terms of geographic distribution of economic and environmental opportunity in major urban areas. The central argument is that historic patterns of suburbanization have contributed to both racial and income inequality. Resources and economic dynamism have abandoned central cities, where most racial minorities live, leaving diminished community structures and hazardous waste in their wake. The resulting racially and socially disparate character of cities and suburbs, and the increasing importance of the suburbs in national voting, has led to a declining political will to deal with poverty, race, and urban decline. Several recent trends, however, may offer a way out of this pessimistic policy box. First, suburbs themselves are changing. There is an increasing minority presence in suburbs, and many of the older, “inner-ring” suburbs are experiencing economic stresses and, hence, have interests similar to those of their adjacent central cities. Second, the emergent “new regionalism” or “smart growth” framework emphasizes the economic complementarity of cities and suburbs within regions, and gives

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I suburbanites strong reasons to support relinking geographic spaces and diminishing inequalities in opportunities and outcomes. Third, inner-city advocates themselves have begun to realize that the best ticket out of poverty and environmental degradation is to relink their neighborhoods and their residents to regional economic dynamics and environmental decision-making processes. Whether all this will come together to offer a brighter future for low-income communities of color will depend on federal and local policy. Historically, federal policy has, on balance, encouraged regional fragmentation and urban sprawl. New strategies should be more supportive of regional collaboration on economic policy, regional connection through public transportation, and regional fairness in the distribution of environmental negatives. Locally, fiscal and other factors have led to increasing division and separation of municipalities. New modes of collaboration and dialogue should be developed that also can have positive impacts on racial inequities/reconciliation by building a regional sense of common purpose and common ground. This brief paper develops these points with reference to general trends in urban America. Because such broad-stroke analysis can obscure the specificities illuminated by the analysis of particular locations, I draw on a number of examples from Los Angeles, a region where urban sprawl, social inequity, environmental degradation, and explosive unrest have often been particularly dramatic. HISTORICAL TRENDS Beginning with Kain (1968), various researchers have stressed that the poor economic outcomes of racial minorities, particularly Blacks, are partly the result of patterns of housing segregation that have prevented minorities from moving in pace with the suburbanization of employment (see Massey and Denton, 1993). This “spatial mismatch” hypothesis has been particularly important in the work of Wilson (1987)—living where the jobs aren’t, it is argued, has a negative effect on employment, particularly when fixed rail and bus lines are not conducive to “reverse” commuting. To examine the general historical pattern, I have drawn data from The State of the Nation’s Cities (SNC), a database developed by Rutgers University under a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) contract, which incorporates information for 74 of the country’s largest cities and metropolitan areas, with most variables drawn from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 censuses.1 As can be seen in Figure 14–1, both popu- 1   SNC was compiled by Norman J.Glickman, Michael Lahr, and Elvin Wyly. It was initially assembled under a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development contract

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I FIGURE 14–1 Suburbanization of employment and population in 74 metropolitan areas, 1970 to 1990. The percent of employment and population in suburbs has been rising, with employment rising faster. lation and employment have been shifting to suburban areas, with the change slightly more pronounced for employment. Of course, minorities have also participated in this movement to the suburbs; in fact, their outward movement has been slightly more pronounced than for Whites. Still, as Figure 14–2 indicates, in 1990, only about 40 percent of Blacks and Hispanics lived outside of central cities in these 74 metropolitan areas, as compared to 67 percent of Whites and Asians. Looked at another, and a perhaps more politically relevant, way, in 1990, about 44 percent of those living in the 74 central cities were Black or Hispanic; but these groups constituted only approximately 16 percent of the suburban population in these 74 metropolitan areas. Given the documented job shift away from, and the concentration of minorities within, central cities, it is not surprising that joblessness, low wages, and a lack of opportunity disproportionately affect racial minorities, even though formal discrimination has declined in the wake of Civil Rights legislation. Figures 14–3 and 14–4 indicate that the ratio of suburban to central-city population has risen over time, and that the ratio of     to the Center for Urban Policy Research to meet the data needs of the United Nations’ Habitat II Conference held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996, and has been expanded in variable coverage since. I specifically used version 2.11A (September 22, 1997).

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I FIGURE 14–2 Suburbanization of the population in 74 metropolitan areas, 1970 to 1990. The percent of Blacks and Hispanics residing in suburbs is rising faster than for other groups, but the suburbanization ratio (percent of group residing in suburbs) is still only about 60 percent of that for Whites and Asians. FIGURE 14–3 Ratio of suburban to central-city income, from 1970 to 1990. Suburban income is higher than central-city income, and the imbalance has been rising over time.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I FIGURE 14–4 Ratio of central-city to metropolitan poverty, from 1970 to 1990. Poverty is relatively higher in the central city, and the differential with respect to suburbs is rising over time. central-city to metropolitan-level poverty has also been on the rise. Given the demographics, the implications for racial equality are clear. There has also been a rise in income inequality within regions (see Figure 14–5), as well as a rise in the variability in income growth between regions (see Figure 14–6). The variability in income growth between regions, however, is not a good candidate for explaining racial inequality. Breaking the 74 metropolitan regions into slow, medium, and fast growers, the proportion of the population that is minority is roughly the same across groups. A more likely explanation is that there are increasing differentials between city and suburb within nearly every region. To see how this plays out in one specific case, and to get a more detailed analysis that goes beyond broad categories of city and suburb, I combined data on residents from the Public Use Microdata Sample for Los Angeles (L.A.) County with data from the local Association of Governments on the employment base—i.e., where the jobs are actually located—by census tracts for 1980 and 1990. To link the two, I aggregated the tract-level employment data for L.A.’s 58 Public Use Microdata Areas (PUMAs). L.A. County PUMAs have a median population of less than 150,000 and are generally recognizable neighborhoods whose size, scale,

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I FIGURE 14–5 Metropolitan-level inequality in 74 metropolitan areas, 1970 to 1990. Income inequality within regions increased during the 1980s, and the variation between regional patterns of inequality increased as well. FIGURE 14–6 Variability of income growth by metropolitan area, 1970 to 1990. The variability of per capita income by region has risen, suggesting increasingly different economic performance by region.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I and borders seem to approximate localized labor markets (see Pastor and Marcelli, 2001). Using PUMAs allows us to go beyond the usual city/ suburb distinction, which is especially important in the case of L.A., where the central city contains many of its own suburbs, and inner-ring suburbs in the County often exhibit economic conditions worse than the city of Los Angeles. The 58 PUMAs were arranged in order of job growth during the 1980s; Raphael (1998), Stoll (1997), and others have suggested that this sort of job-growth measure is better than the usual job-density variable, especially for first-time labor-market entrants, like minority youth, because it captures the rate at which job possibilities appear and therefore proxies labor-market tautness. After arranging the sample, I took the fastest growing one-third and slowest growing one-third of the PUMAs and calculated the demographics. The results (Figure 14–7) are striking— the low job-growth areas are 67 percent Black and Hispanic; the fast job- FIGURE 14–7 Ethnic composition of low and high job growth areas in Los Angeles County, 1990. Throughout the 1980s, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics increased by 8.0 percent in low job growth areas and 6.1 percentage points in high job growth areas, suggesting increasing concentration of minorities in low job growth areas.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I growth areas are only 41 percent Black and Hispanic. As noted in Figure 14–7, the minority percentage actually rose more in the low-growth areas, suggesting that Whites may have been more likely to (or able to) follow the jobs, while minority residents were more likely to stay put. Of course, the problem is not simply one of slow employment growth or job scarcity, per se, in the central city. Many authors have stressed that living in areas of concentrated poverty tends to diminish the relative strength of social networks critical to obtaining jobs (O’Regan, 1993; Pastor and Adams, 1996; Oliver and Lichter, 1996; Ellen and Turner, 1997). O’Regan (1993:331) makes the argument most eloquently; she notes that “networks are largely determined by location” and that “there is a negative externality associated with increased concentration of the poor.” Galster and Killen (1995) note that the evidence on space and networks is somewhat tentative (and generally under-modeled), but it does indicate the direction of a spatial effect on network “quality.” Wilson (1996) and others have also stressed what might be called “social-ecologic factors.” In neighborhoods where work and wages are scarce, individual survival strategies tend to incorporate skills and behavior patterns that are not conducive to obtaining and retaining employment. For example, developing a tough demeanor or avoiding eye contact may enhance self-protection in a high-poverty, high-crime neighborhood, but these techniques are less successful in a job interview (Wilson, 1996:63– 64). Wilson stresses that fundamental values regarding the importance of work and family are quite similar between ghetto residents and others; what differs is the “structure of opportunity” within which to act on those values (see also, Acs and Wissoker, 1991; Galster and Killen, 1995). If these hypotheses carry weight, then the problems of poor social networks and inadequate incentives are especially important for U.S. minorities. After all, Jargowsky’s analysis of the 1990 Census data suggests that poor Blacks were more than five times more likely, and poor Hispanics nearly four times more likely, than poor Whites to live in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty (Jargowsky, 1997:41). Wilson (1996) has argued that the problem of joblessness and limited social networks has become more pronounced as joblessness has grown in ghetto, or high poverty, communities. As Briggs (1997:209) points out, however, there are “dangers of confusing spatial proximity with social interaction” (see also Tienda, 1991). To check the impact of spatial and “social” (or network) factors on individual level outcomes, L.A.’s Survey of Urban Inequality was used. I regressed (the log of) wages for male workers on a series of typical human-capital and demographic factors (education, work experience, English language proficiency, recentness of immigration, marital status, race/ethnicity) and three other “social ecological” variables (network

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I quality, local job growth, and local/skill mismatch). Network quality is an overall measure of the strength and “quality” of networks, with strength representing the number of ties and the extent of favors that one expects would be extended by network contacts, and quality represented by the labor-market position of those in one’s networks.2 Local job growth is simply the 1980-to-1990 employment increase in the PUMA in which an individual resides. Local/skill mismatch measures the difference between the PUMA-level demand for skills—i.e., the educational levels associated with local jobs—and the supply of skills—i.e., the educational level of the residents in that PUMA. Note that local/skill mismatch doesn’t address the individual skill level; it simply suggests whether there is a skill-based spatial mismatch in one’s neighborhood that could lead higher-wage employers to look somewhere else for employees (see Holzer and Danziger, 1997). The results, fully presented in Pastor and Marcelli (2001), suggest that location does matter to individual level outcomes and that the quality of one’s network—or stock of social capital—is important.3 An additional dimension of spatial inequality has to do with the unequal distribution of environmental hazards that are often the byproducts left in central cities by older industrial processes as newer and cleaner employment has radiated outward. Although there have been doubters,4 a wide array of research indicates that there is a pattern, nationwide, of toxic storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs), toxic air releases, and other locally undesirable land uses (LULUs) being concentrated in minority neighborhoods. Because much of the pattern of industry, and hence waste, is regional, I turn once again to metropolitan Los Angeles. The entire Southern California area (five counties excluding San Diego) is linked together in a regional association of governments. Figure 14–8 indicates the percentage of Southern California Whites, Blacks, and 2   Although the network quality variable is individually based, many analysts have argued that the quality of one’s contacts, at least in terms of their access to employment opportunities, may be profoundly affected by location, in that those living in areas of concentrated poverty are more likely to have poor and poorly connected individuals as their cohorts. 3   It is interesting that one of the traditional measures of spatial mismatch—average neighborhood commute time—is not a significant predictor if substituted for the better measures described here; this suggests the need to go beyond that usual variable in regression analyses, at least in the case of Los Angeles. For more on spatial mismatch in L.A., and how it might differ from other metro areas, see Pugh (1998:36–38). 4   Anderton et al. (1994) best represent the doubters. Been (1995) is one of the more careful national-level studies indicating that disproportionate environmental exposure exists, confirming the less rigorous cross-sectional work of United Church of Christ (1987) and the U.S. General Accounting Office (1983). For a recent comprehensive review of the literature, see Szasz and Meuser (1997).

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I FIGURE 14–8 Exposure by group to environmental negatives in Southern California. The figure charts the percentage of each group living in a tract with the specified release. For example, 5.4 percent of Whites live in a tract with a 33/50 release, but 10 percent of Hispanics live in such a tract. Hispanics who live in a census tract in which one of three types of hazards occurs—TSDFs, a toxic or (TRI) air release, or a 33/50 air release (classified as higher priority for reduction by the Environmental Protection Agency). As it turns out, Hispanics are particularly likely to live in such areas. Moreover, population ethnicity (especially percentage Hispanic) seems to factor into the location of these hazards, even in a multivariate regression, which controls for land use, population density, income levels, residents employed in manufacturing, and other relevant variables (Boer et al., 1997; Sadd et al., 1999). With jobs leaving, social capital slipping, and environmental negatives accumulating, ethnic minorities living in the areas where hazardous waste accumulation is occurring are experiencing distress.5 Of course, both everyday experience and the wage and employment “penalties” evidenced in most multivariate regression analyses suggest that race still 5   One issue not covered here is education, another realm where place and race have often intertwined to produce negative and self-reinforcing cycles. Indeed, the spatial difference in educational quality is, along with the racial composition of schools, one factor that has likely driven trends toward suburbanization; and the resulting shifts in test scores and population simply induce more shifts. This important topic deserves a full and separate treatment, precluded by the brevity of this paper; as a result, I focus on the direct employment and environmental dimensions of space.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I matters significantly and independently for economic success (or lack thereof). But in a world in which legal discrimination has eroded, place and race have become intertwined and geography has become a predictor of both opportunity and outcome. UNDERSTANDING THE TRENDS The 1970–1990 patterns of suburbanization are a continuation of a longer pattern in post-World War II America (Jackson, 1985; Mollenkopf, 1983). Suburbanization was not simply a response to individual preferences for low-density living and proximity to nature (which, in any case, was often eliminated for earlier suburbanites by the later development of yet another out-lying suburb). Certain federal policies, such as the 1956 Interstate Highway Act and the Federal Housing Authority and Veterans Administration home mortgage loan program, were key contributors to metropolitan decentralization, or what by the 1970s was being called urban sprawl. School desegregation and episodic social unrest in inner cities (again, one of the most dramatic examples being offered by Los Angeles with its 1965 Watts riots) pushed the process along by stimulating widespread White exodus from more established central-city neighborhoods and inner-ring suburbs. Continuing practices of housing market discrimination ensured that Blacks got left behind in the outward movement. As a result, inner cities increasingly became repositories for low-income individuals, as the suburbs enjoyed higher tax bases and fewer social program costs—a process that has deepened fiscal divisions between central cities and their suburbs (Massey and Eggers, 1993; Abramson et al., 1995). As Dreier (1998:10) notes, “since federal policy is typically associated with minority urban dwellers, the assertion that federal policy has tilted the metropolitan playing field toward better off suburbs may seem counter-intuitive.” Yet, Dreier calculates that tax “expenditures” (foregone taxes) for the home mortgage interest deduction, a benefit that can only be taken by home-owning, mostly higher-income suburbanites, totaled approximately four times more than HUD directly spent on housing subsidies in 1997. Furthermore, real expenditures on homeowner subsidies (including the interest rate deduction as well as the deductibility of property tax and deferral of capital gains) rose nearly fourfold between 1978 and 1997, while HUD subsidies declined by more than 80 percent during the same period (Dreier, 2001).6 Meanwhile, federal funds tar- 6   As for the distribution, the top 12 percent of taxpayers received 71 percent of the mortgage-interest benefits in 1995 (also taken from Dreier (2001) with the calculations based on data provided in Estimates of Federal Tax Expenditures for Fiscal Years 1996–2000, Washington, D.C.: Joint Committee on Taxation, U.S. Congress, September 1, 1995).

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I are too weak or tend to connect one to lower rungs of the job hierarchy. Unfortunately, those workers who most need intermediaries are those who lack social capital and encounter spatial mismatch, so they are often constrained in their ability to access services or have limited knowledge of their availability. As temporary and contingent work have risen in importance, the intermediary role has also become more important. Understanding which of these intermediaries works best for low-income, spatially isolated residents, and why, will be important for policy (Kazis, 1998). Sixth, more research on transportation connections to employment would be useful. Gottlieb (1997) bemoans the relative lack of studies using journey-to-work data. The Public Use Microdata Sample contains detailed information about commuting, but even though the place of residence is quite specific—i.e., at the PUMA level—the place of work is simply “the city,” implying a loss of specificity for larger areas like Los Angeles. As a result, Pastor and Adams (1996) were forced to drop any subject who worked in the City of Los Angeles or other multi-PUMA jurisdiction in order to look at whether living in a poor neighborhood but working in a wealthier one raised one’s income. It did, with interesting implications for reverse commuting programs; but this is based on a selective sample that could be broadened if the Census Bureau collected and geocoded more complete work-address information in 2000. Seventh, we need more regional-level case studies of the patterns of environmental exposure by race and other variables. Recent research has gone beyond anecdotes and case studies; but in the search for empiricism, there has been a tendency to reach to national levels and large aggregate datasets. This has the advantage of broad coverage; however, industrial structures are often regional in nature, and so is the nature of pollution. Moreover, at a regional level, researchers can generally access such variables as land use and employment as well as the traditional demographic measures available from the U.S. Census. This allows for a fuller picture; and the local-level data will often allow for more serious investigations of, for example, whether the pattern of toxic location is a phenomenon that occurs before a demographic transition or whether there is a minority move-in effect which occurs after. Of course, either outcome results in a worrisome pattern of disproportionate exposure, but the policy implications diverge—when toxics are placed in neighborhoods by race, attention should be paid to cleaning up the politics of the siting process; if minorities aggregate around toxics, perhaps because of lower land values, information campaigns should be used to make everyone aware of the risks that are silently (and perhaps incompletely) signaled via market prices.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Much remains to be done in the research of space and race. We need not wait for the analytical dust to settle completely before we move ahead with some immediate policy measures to address the geography of opportunity. Indeed, there are a variety of exciting experiments and initiatives that point in the right direction and should be continued. A new policy approach might have three central elements: (1) reversing the federal and state incentives for sprawl with incentives for regional reconnection, (2) facilitating the connection of poorer (usually minority) individuals to the regional economy, and (3) encouraging the fair distribution of environmental hazards produced in the regional economy. These might be broadly called regional collaboration, regional mobility, and regional environmentalism. On the collaboration side, one critical element will be increased incentives for regional approaches. The single most effective lever for regional collaboration in recent years has been provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), which was recently reworked as the Transportation Equity Act for the Twenty-first Century (TEA-21).14 The framework ISTEA presented for multijurisdictional cooperation should be a model for other federal policies, including Section 8 administration and workforce development. A bonus pool of federal funding, regardless of the specific program, could be set aside for local jurisdictions that have demonstrated progress on intraregional collaboration and multisectoral participation. Help could be provided for auditing of the regional economy and its business clusters in order to get a sense of how best to train individuals for upward advancement. Clusters could be graded not only by their contribution to aggregate growth, but also by their accessibility to low-income residents and their mechanisms for upward wage progress. Hopeful signs abound. HUD is moving to develop a regionalist agenda, Vice President Gore has become a strong proponent of “Smart Growth,” and there is rising interest among foundations in how new regional approaches might address central-city poverty and urban development. One interesting experiment under way involves the creation of “location-efficient” mortgages, which reward borrowers who live near public transit (on the grounds that they will spend less money on auto transport and, hence, should qualify for more credit). This will help inner-city residents and constitutes one incentive that leans away from suburbanization. Overcoming the larger incentives, including the mortgage interest rate deduction, will be politically challenging. At the least, 14   For more on TEA-21 and how it might be conducive to placing low-income minority residents in new jobs, see Center for Community Change (1998).

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I this deduction could be restructured to be more distributionally progressive. Federal incentives for mobility should come in three areas—housing, transportation, and employment. Allocating low-income housing across the region (via scattered-site approaches and inclusionary zoning) and generating individual housing mobility are necessary to decentralize poverty and allow poorer individuals to connect to acquire new residential networks. Generating transportation mobility is necessary to allow poorer job-seekers ways to connect to suburbanized employment. HUD’s Bridges to Work program, for example, facilitates reverse commuting and is a flexible response to the problems of fixed-rail lines and bus patterns.15 More generally, the distributional impacts of transportation should be more explicitly taken into account, particularly because they may vary by region. In the Los Angeles area, for example, the continued development of light- and heavy-rail commuter systems (in which riders cover only 7 to 9 percent of service costs) has strained the ability to mount adequate bus service (even though riders here cover 30 to 35 percent of costs). As a result, the bus system, with a more than 80 percent minority ridership, is considered to be the most overcrowded in the United States, and the local metropolitan transit authority was sued by a series of community groups and the NAACP Legal Defense Fund when it attempted to raise bus fares to cover overruns on rail construction (Mann, 1996). Given the crucial role of public transportation for lower-income minority workers (Hodge, 1995), much more attention needs to be paid to equity in transport development and accessibility. Generating employment mobility should involve more than first-time placement. Although much attention has been focused on the jobless, an equally severe problem is that of the working poor—and it is one that is likely to worsen as ex-welfare recipients flood low-wage labor markets. New directions could involve public provision of continued training as well as efforts to increase firm-sponsored training. These could help those in low-wage, currently dead-end jobs to move up a career ladder. Part of this will also involve CDC-based job training and placement programs, the best of which seem to be deeply connected to their regional labor market (Zdenek, 1998; Melendez, 1996). 15   Fernandez (1997) notes that if firms locate in suburbs to avoid minorities, transportation will not be much help. If such location is driven by land use availability and technological imperatives, then reverse commuting, improved networks, and other measures might help. Despite acknowledging that minority avoidance might be a factor, Fernandez still concurs that transportation strategies can work if these are coupled with information efforts—i.e., labor market intermediaries—and transport subsidies for minority workers.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Finally, one of the most exciting developments in the area of the environment and disproportionate exposure is the Environmental Protection Agency’s various Brownfields Initiatives. Given the historic pattern of toxics, low-income minority communities are saddled with industrial sites from which developers, worried about legal entanglements and clean-up costs, may shy. Initiatives to clean up these sites tend to be “win-win” situations—the aggregate level of minority exposure will decline, economic development will result in the inner city, and the public, private, and community sectors will gain experience working together. There are numerous pilot projects under way; most involve a regional approach to the identification of sites and the building of coalitions for implementation. These efforts should be expanded as soon as the preliminary data are in and some lessons learned on how to proceed. The harder task will be determining new rules for future toxic facilities that explicitly take into account racial justice issues. CONCLUSION: PLACE, RACE, AND FACE In explaining the continuing economic difficulties of minorities in the United States, three factors seem critical: place, race, and “face.” Place has been the subject of much of the analysis here—racial disparities have been both driven by, and reflected in, geographic differences with regard to access to employment, schools, and opportunity. Race likewise remains an independent factor—careful research by Kirschenman and Neckerman (1991) and Kirschenman et al. (1996) indicates that employers still exhibit preferences to hire nonminorities, with special discrimination faced by Blacks. Finally, “face” refers to the networks or personal connections that can help people move out of poverty, but that are often lacking for those living in areas of concentrated poverty. It has been difficult for U.S. policy makers and the American public to face up to the second of these barriers—the question of racism and its persistence. The end of de jure segregation led some to believe the civil rights battle had been won, and the new political sentiment against affirmative action reflects a sense that a helping hand is no longer needed. But racism continues, and differential outcomes with regard to the economy and the environment continue to be played out through the social structures and limits imposed by urban geography. There is, however, hope. Suburbs are changing, creating the opportunity for new political alliances. The idea of regional collaboration across municipalities is gaining ground. Minority community residents and leaders are realizing that they need to “think and link” to the region. Can this new regionalism framework offer a way out of this downward spiral of increasing geographic isolation, widening racial differen-

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I tials, and diminishing social capital? Maybe. Clearly, education levels, racial attitudes, and political power will all continue to matter. More research on the geography of opportunity is needed, and the emerging policy experiments must run their course. Still, the hopeful message from the new regionalists is that linking places and people, combining regional strategies, and community development, can be part of a strategy to ameliorate the gaps of race in America. REFERENCES Abramson, A., M.Tobin, and M.VanderGoot 1995 The changing geography of metropolitan opportunity: The segregation of the poor in U.S. metropolitan areas, 1970 to 1990. Housing Policy Debate 6(1):45–72. Acs, G., and D.Wissoker 1991 The Impact of Local Labor Markets on the Employment Patterns of Young Inner-City Males. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. Anderton, D., A.Anderson, P.Rossi, J.Oakes, M.Fraser, E.Weber, and E.Calabrese 1994 Hazardous waste facilities: “Environmental equity” issues in metropolitan areas Evaluation Review 18(April):123–140. Barnes, W., and L.Ledebur 1998 The New Regional Economies: The U.S. Common Market and the Global Economy. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Been, V. 1995 Analyzing evidence of environmental justice. Journal of Land Use and Environmental Law 11(Fall):1–37. Blumberg, L., and R.Gottlieb 1989 War on Waster: Can America Win Its Battle with Garbage? Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Boer, J., M.Pastor, Jr., J.Sadd, and L.Snyder 1997 Is there environmental racism? The demographics of hazardous waste in Los Angeles County. Social Science Quarterly 78(4):793–810. Bollens, S. 1997 Concentrated poverty and metropolitan equity strategies. Stanford Law and Policy Review 8(2):11–23 Briggs, X.de Souza 1997 Moving up versus moving out: Neighborhood effects in housing mobility programs. Housing Policy Debate 8(1):195–234. Center for Community Change (CCC) 1998 Getting to Work: An Organizer’s Guide to Transportation Equity. Washington, D.C.: Center for Community Change. Downs, A. 1994 New Visions for Metropolitan America. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Dreier, P. 1998 Trends, characteristics, and patterns in urban America. Paper presented to the Transportation Research Board, Conference on Transportation Issues in Large U.S. Cities, Detroit, June 28. 2001 Housing Policy and Devolution—A Delicate Balancing Act. New York: Century Foundation.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Eisinger, P. 1998 City politics in an era of federal devolution. Urban Affairs Review 33(3):308–325. Ellen, I., and M.Turner 1997 Does neighborhood matter? Assessing recent evidence. Housing Policy Debate 8(4):833–866. Falcón, L. 1995 Social networks and employment for Latinos, Blacks, and Whites. New England Journal of Public Policy 11(1):17–28. Fernandez, R. 1997 Spatial mismatch: Housing, transportation, and employment in regional perspective. In The Urban Crisis: Linking Research to Action, B.Weisbrod and J.Worthy, eds. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press. Fernandez, R., and N.Weinberg 1998 Sifting and sorting: Personal contacts and hiring in a retail bank. American Sociological Review 62:883–902. Foster, K. 1997 Regional impulses. Journal of Urban Affairs 19(4):375–403. Frey, W., and D.Geverdt 1998 Changing suburban demographics: Beyond the “Black-White, city-suburb” typology. Paper prepared for Suburban Racial Change, a conference sponsored by the Harvard Civil Rights Project and the Taubman Center on State and Local Government, March 28. Fulton, W. 1997 The Reluctant Metropolis: The Politics of Urban Growth in Los Angeles. Point Arena, Calif.: Solano Press Books. Fulton, W., and M.Newman 1992 When COGS collide. Planning 58(1):9–15. Galster, G., and S.Killen 1995 The geography of metropolitan opportunity: A reconnaissance and conceptual framework. Housing Policy Debate 6(1):10–47. Gottlieb, P. 1997 Neighborhood development in the metropolitan economy: A policy review. Journal of Urban Affairs 19(2):163–182. 1998 The Effects of Poverty on Metropolitan Area Economic Performance: A Policy-Oriented Research Review. Washington, D.C.: National League of Cities. Gyourko J., and A.Summers 1997 A New Strategy for Helping Cities Pay for the Poor. Brookings Policy Brief 18. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Harrison, B. 1998 It takes a region (or does it?): The material basis for metropolitanism and metropolitics. Paper prepared for the Twentieth Annual Research Conference, Association for Public Policy and Management, New York, October. Harrison, B., and M.Weiss 1998 Workforce Development Networks: Community-Based Organizations and Regional Alliances. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Henton, D., J.Melville, and K.Walesh 1997 Grassroots Leaders for a New Economy: How Civic Entrepreneurs are Building Prosperous Communities. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Hill, E., H.Wolman, and C.Ford, III 1994 Do cities lead and suburbs follow? Examining their economic interdependence. Paper prepared for the conference Rethinking the Urban Agenda, sponsored by the Sydney C.Spivack Program, American Sociological Association, Belmont Conference Center, Md., May 20–22. Hodge, D. 1995 My fair share: Equity issues in urban transportation. In The Geography of Urban Transportation, S.Hanson, ed. New York: The Guilford Press. Holzer, H., and S.Danziger 1997 Are jobs available for disadvantaged groups in urban areas? Paper prepared for Michigan State University and University of Michigan, March. Ihlanfeldt, K. 1995 The importance of the central city to the regional and national economy: A review of the arguments and empirical evidence. Cityscape 1(2):125–150. Indergaard, M. 1997 Community-based restructuring? Institution building in the industrial Midwest. Urban Affairs Review 32(5):662–682. Jackson, J. 1985 Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. Jargowsky, P. 1997 Poverty and Place: Ghettos, Barrios, and the American City. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Kain, J. 1968 Housing segregation, Negro employment and metropolitan decentralization. Quarterly Journal of Economics 25:110–130. Kazis, R. 1998 New labor market intermediaries: What’s driving them? Where are they headed? Paper prepared for the Task Force on Reconstructing America’s Labor Market Institutions, Sloan School of Management, MIT, June. Kirschenman, J., P.Moss, and C.Tilly 1996 Space as a signal, space as a barrier: How employers map and use space in four metropolitan labor markets. Working Paper No. 89. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Kirschenman, J., and K.Neckerman 1991 “We’d love to hire them, but…”: The meaning of race for employers. In The Urban Underclass, C.Jencks and P.Peterson, eds. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Mann, E. 1996 A New Vision for Urban Transportation: The Bus Riders Union Makes History at the Intersection of Mass Transit, Civil Rights, and the Environment. Los Angeles: Labor/ Community Strategies Center. Massey, D., and N.Denton 1993 American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Massey, D., and M.Eggers 1993 The spatial concentration of affluence and poverty during the 1970s. Urban Affairs Quarterly 29(2):299–315. Melendez, E. 1996 Working on Jobs: The Center for Employment Training. Boston: Mauricio Gaston Institute, University of Massachusetts.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Mollenkopf, J. 1983 The Contested City. Princeton: Princeton University Press. National Academy of Public Administration 1998 Building Stronger Communities and Regions: Can the Federal Government Help? Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Public Administration. Nowak, J. 1997 Neighborhood initiative and the regional economy. Economic Development Quarterly 11(1):3–10. 1998 Expanding the scope of community development. Shelterforce 97(January/February):10–12. O’Regan, K. 1993 The effect of social networks and concentrated poverty on Black and Hispanic youth unemployment. The Annals of Regional Science 27(December):327–342. Oliver, M., and M.Lichter 1996 Social isolation, network segregation, and job search among African Americans. Paper prepared for University of California, Los Angeles, January. Orfield, M. 1997 Metropolitics: A Regional Agenda for Community and Stability. Washington, D.C.: The Brooking Institution. Parker, R. 1995 Patterns of federal urban spending: Cities and their suburbs, 1983–92. Urban Affairs Review 31(2):184–205. Pastor, M., Jr., and Adams, A. 1996 Keeping down with the Joneses: Neighbors, networks, and wages. Review of Regional Economics 26(2):115–145. Pastor, M., P.Dreier, E.Grigsby, and M.Lopez-Garza 1997 Growing Together: Linking Regional and Community Development in a Changing Economy. Report for the John Randolph Haynes and Dora Haynes Foundation, Occidental College, Los Angeles. 2000 Regions That Work: How Cities and Suburbs Can Grow Together. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Pastor, M., and E.Marcelli 2001 Men n the hood: Spatial, skill, and social mismatch for male workers in Los Angeles. Urban Geography, forthcoming. Peirce, N., C.Johnson, and J.Hall 1993 Citistates: How Urban America Can Prosper in a Competitive World. Washington, D.C.: Seven Locks Press. Peirce, N., and C.Johnson 1997 Boundary Crossers: Community Leadership for a Global Age. College Park, Md.: The Academy of Leadership. Popkin, S., J.Rosenbaum, and P.Meaden 1993 Labor market experiences of low-income Black women in middle-class suburbs: Evidence from a survey of Gautreaux program participants. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12(3):556–573. Pugh, M. 1998 Barriers to work: The spatial divide between jobs and welfare recipients in metropolitan areas. A discussion paper prepared for the Brookings Institution, Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy, September. Putnam, R. 1993 Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Raphael, S. 1998 The spatial mismatch hypothesis and Black youth joblessness: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay area. Journal of Urban Economics 43(1):79–111. Rusk, D. 1998 St. Louis congregations challenge urban sprawl. Shelterforce 97(January/February):21–26. Sadd, J., M.Pastor, T.Boer, and L.Snyder 1999 “Every breath you take”: The demographics of toxic air releases in Southern California. Economic Development Quarterly 13(2):107–123. Savitch, H., D.Collins, D.Sanders, and J.Markham 1993 Ties that bind: Central cities, suburbs, and the new metropolitan region. Economic Development Quarterly 7(4):341–357. Savitch, H., and R.Vogel, eds. 1996 Regional Politics: America in a Post-City Age. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications. Saxenian, A. 1996 The Regional Advantage, Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Schrag, P. 1998 Paradise Lost: California’s Experience, America’s Future. New York: The New Press. Stoll, M. 1997 The extent and effect of spatial job search on the and wages of racial/ethnic groups in Los Angeles. Paper prepared for University of California, Los Angeles, August. Summers, A. 1997 Major Regionalization Efforts Between Cities and Suburbs in the United States. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Real Estate Center, Working Paper No. 246, March. Swanstrom, T. 1996 Ideas matter: Reflections on the new regionalism. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research 2(2)5–21. Szasz, A., and M.Meuser 1997 Environmental inequalities: Literature review and proposals for new directions in research and theory. Current Sociology 45(3):99–120. Tienda, M. 1991 Poor people and poor places: Deciphering neighborhood effects on poverty outcomes. Pp. 244–262 in Macro-Micro Linkages in Sociology, J.Huber, ed. Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications. United Church of Christ, Commission for Racial Justice 1987 Toxic Wastes and Race in the United States: A National Report on the Racial and SocioEconomic Characteristics of Communities with Hazardous Waste Sites. New York: Public Data Access. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1996 America’s New Economy and the Challenge of the Cities: A HUD Report on Metropolitan Economic Strategy. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. U.S. General Accounting Office 1983 Siting of Hazardous Waste Landfills and Their Correlation with Racial and Economic Status of Surrounding Communities. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Voith, R. 1997 Do suburbs need cities? Journal of Regional Science 38(3):445–464.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Walsh, J. 1997 Stories of Renewal: Community Building and the Future of Urban America. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation. Wilson, W. 1996 When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1987 The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Zdenek, R. 1998 Connecting people to jobs: Capitalizing on regional economic development opportunities. Shelterforce 97(January/February):13–15.

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