Index

A

Accidents and injuries

I:33–34

II:290, 328, 359, 361–362, 363, 366

Acculturation, see Assimilation

Adolescents

alcohol and drug abuse,

II:311, 327, 328–334, 329, 341

Blacks,

I:350–384 (passim), 423

II:3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 323– 339, 340–341, 361–364 (passim)

see also “teenage pregnancy” infra

crime and criminal justice system,

Blacks, II:3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 311, 323–334

homicide, II:311, 322, 323–328, 340–341

dropouts,

I:26, 76, 117, 179–180, 423

II:73, 109, 331

educational issues, other,

I:350–364, 369–384

II:73

see also “test…” infra

employment, II:101

firearms, II:328, 335, 338–339, 361, 362, 363, 364

health issues, general,

I:18

II:322–339, 340–342, 359–364, 365–366, 367

Hispanics,

I:375

II:323, 328–331, 332, 361, 362, 363

homicide, II:311, 322, 323–328, 340–341

immigrants, general, I:230, 231

mortality, II:323–327, 359, 361–362, 363– 364

peer pressure,

I:375–378

II:331

population age structure, I:45–48

psychosocial problems, II:311, 322–339, 340–342

smoking,

I:33

II:328–331 (passim), 333

suicide, II:311, 322, 335–339, 341

teenage pregnancy,

I:62, 65, 66–67, 68, 76–77, 93, 423

II:147, 340, 359, 361, 362, 365–366, 399

I and II indicate the respective volumes to which the page numbers refer.



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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Index A Accidents and injuries I:33–34 II:290, 328, 359, 361–362, 363, 366 Acculturation, see Assimilation Adolescents alcohol and drug abuse, II:311, 327, 328–334, 329, 341 Blacks, I:350–384 (passim), 423 II:3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 323– 339, 340–341, 361–364 (passim) see also “teenage pregnancy” infra crime and criminal justice system, Blacks, II:3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 311, 323–334 homicide, II:311, 322, 323–328, 340–341 dropouts, I:26, 76, 117, 179–180, 423 II:73, 109, 331 educational issues, other, I:350–364, 369–384 II:73 see also “test…” infra employment, II:101 firearms, II:328, 335, 338–339, 361, 362, 363, 364 health issues, general, I:18 II:322–339, 340–342, 359–364, 365–366, 367 Hispanics, I:375 II:323, 328–331, 332, 361, 362, 363 homicide, II:311, 322, 323–328, 340–341 immigrants, general, I:230, 231 mortality, II:323–327, 359, 361–362, 363– 364 peer pressure, I:375–378 II:331 population age structure, I:45–48 psychosocial problems, II:311, 322–339, 340–342 smoking, I:33 II:328–331 (passim), 333 suicide, II:311, 322, 335–339, 341 teenage pregnancy, I:62, 65, 66–67, 68, 76–77, 93, 423 II:147, 340, 359, 361, 362, 365–366, 399 I and II indicate the respective volumes to which the page numbers refer.

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I test scores, affirmative action, I:323, 334, 335, 337–342 test scores, cross-group comparisons, I:12–13, 350–364 II:73–74, 313 violence, II:311, 322, 323–328 wages, II:109 Whites, II:323–331, 335–337, 363 Adults, I:14 disabled, II:267 drug use, II:331, 332, 341 health status, I:17 II:371–410 household structure, I:24–25 immigrants, general, I:230, 231 population age structure, I:45–48 see also Elderly persons; Military service; Veterans Affirmative action, I:12, 318–347 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:171, 274 attitudes toward, I:271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–344 II:36 Blacks, I:272–273, 274, 318, 321, 331–332, 334– 344 II:5, 9, 10, 36, 75–79, 139, 190, 191, 193, 202, 204–214 classification of race and, I:326 conference agenda, I:475 II:437 criminal justice system and, II:5, 9, 10, 36 defined, I:318–319 education, I:319, 327–329, 332, 333, 334–335, 336, 337–342, 348 II:198 electoral issues, I:319, 329–331 employment, I:271, 274, 319–320, 322, 323–325, 332– 337, 342 II:69, 75–79, 104–105, 113–114, 204 funding and, I:319, 320–321, 322, 324, 325–326, 343– 344, 426–427 II:76–77 government contracting, I:319, 321, 326 II:204, 205 Hispanics, I:14, 123, 124, 274, 328, 335 housing, I:320, 427 Jews, I:328, 335 litigation, I:326–329, 333–334 II:207, 215–217 local-level, I:319, 325–326, 331 II:205–207, 208–213, 214–217 military personnel, I:15 II:186 minority-owned businesses, I:325–327, 329–330 II:190, 191, 193, 202, 204–217, 219 poverty and, I:328–329, 338–339, 340 reverse discrimination, I:324, 326, 327–329 II:207, 214 set-asides, I:325–327, 329–330 II:205, 214–217 state-level, I:319, 325–326, 329–330, 331, 333 II:206 test scores, I:323, 327–329, 334, 335, 337– 342 Whites, attitudes toward, I:271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–330, 331– 337 other, I:324, 326, 327–329 II:75 women, I:319, 321, 324, 325, 331, 334, 336, 337 II:113–114 African Americans, see Blacks Age Discrimination Act, II:77–78 Age factors, I:44–49 affirmative action, attitudes toward, I:333 American Indians, I:47, 48, 65–66, 67, 68, 75, 86–87 II:165, 266, 282 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:48, 49, 66, 68, 81, 86–87 II:282

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Blacks, I:45, 46, 48, 66–67, 68, 71, 93, 350–356 II:9, 13, 42–43, 165, 340, 378, 387 disabled persons, II:267 educational attainment I:114, 116 see also “test scores” infra employment, II:101, 144, 146–147 fertility, I:62–63, 65–67, 68, 69 Hispanics, I:47–48, 62, 65, 67, 68, 69, 81, 85, 86– 87, 114, 116, 119, 350, 352–356 II:58, 165, 261, 292, 378 household structure, I:25 immigrants, general, I:47, 49, 206, 208– 209, 229–232 life expectancy, I:80–84, 86–87, 93 II:256, 257, 265, 382–383, 384–385 marital, I:62, 71, 75, 93 political factors, I:62 test scores, I:350–356 wealth, II:234–237 welfare, II:165, 167 Whites, I:45, 46, 48, 62, 66–67, 68 II:9, 42, 46–47, 165, 378 see also Adolescents; Adults; Children; Development; Elderly persons; Infants; Life expectancy Aggregation and disaggregation techniques I:4–6, 22 II:59, 228, 332, 341, 343 Agricultural sector American Indians, I:152 Hispanics, I:59–60, 213–214 immigrants, I:59–60, 200–201, 213–214 internal migration, I:58 see also Rural areas AIDS I:34, 92 II:259, 377–378 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), II:153–158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168, 169 see also Temporary Assistance to Needy Families Alabama, II:28 Alaska, I:15, 140 Alaskan Natives, see American Indians and Alaskan Natives Alcohol and drug abuse, II:343, 399 adolescents, II:311, 327, 328–334, 329, 341 American Indians, II:320–321, 340 Asians and Pacific Islanders, II:320–321 Blacks, I:6 II:3, 4, 12, 14–18, 26, 29–30, 36–40, 46– 47, 328–334, 341, 381, 382, 397 cocaine, II:4, 12, 15–18, 26, 29, 39, 46, 47, 326, 328, 331, 333 criminal justice system, I:6 II:3, 4, 12, 14–18, 26, 29–30, 36–40, 46– 47, 326, 328, 329, 331, 333 fetal alcohol exposure, II:275, 311, 320– 322, 340 health effects of alcohol, other, II:275– 276, 375–376, 380 Hispanics, II:328–331, 332, 382 marijuana, II:16, 39, 328, 329, 333 suicide and, II:335 treatment, II:327, 333 Whites, II:39–40, 46–47, 328–332, 381, 382 Alzheimer’s disease, II:288–289 American Academy of Pediatrics, II:315 An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy I:103–104 II:254 American Indians and Alaska Natives, I:16, 38, 135–169 adolescent violence, II:323 age factors, I:47, 48, 65–66, 67, 68, 75, 86–87 II:165, 266, 282 attitudes, I:155 Bureau of Indian Affairs, I:139 businesses owned by, II:202 census data, I:42, 137–138, 140, 142, 388 II:371 children, II:353, 359, 360 Civil Rights Movement and, I:153, 159 classification of, I:5, 41, 137–138 II:257, 371, 383–384, 387, 398 crime and criminal justice system, I:34, 35 II:44, 323, 340, 378, 379

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I cultural factors, I:16, 138, 139–140, 142–143, 147–148, 151, 153–165 II:398 see also “language factors” infra demographics, general, I:16, 22–23, 50, 51, 58, 60, 137–138, 140, 141, 165 diseases and disorders, II:60, 157, 267 economic conditions, general, I:15, 31, 38, 60–61, 145–147 education, I:137, 147–155, 166 educational attainment, I:148, 149, 180 II:165, 167, 292, 319 elderly, II:266, 282 employment, I:60–61 II:134, 135, 146, 164, 165 fertility, I:64–71 (passim), 93, 137 gambling on reservations, I:146–147 gender factors, I:180 II:340 health care, II:285, 422 see also “Indian Health Service” infra health-care professionals, II:286, 295 health risk factors, II:272–276 (passim) health status, general, I:135–137, 147, 292 II:254, 256, 258, 259, 262–263, 276, 383– 384, 398 see “immunizations,” “infant…,” “life expectancy,” and “mortality” infra homicide and assaultive violence, I:34, 35 II:323, 340, 378, 379 housing conditions, I:36–37 immunizations, II:359, 360 income, I:31, 38 II:164 Indian Health Service, I:91 II:262, 282, 383–384 infant mortality, I:32–33, 34, 88–89, 90, 146 II:264, 357, 362, 364 infants, birth weight, II:319 infants, fetal alcohol exposure, II:320– 321, 340 intermarriage, I:16, 75, 76, 142, 149 II:293 language factors, I:142, 149, 154 legal issues, education, I:149–150, 151 litigation, I:143–144, 145 remains of dead, I:154(n.10), 158–161, 166 tribal membership requirements, I:139–140, 144 tribal sovereignty, I:143–144, 145, 146–147, 165–166 legislation, general, I:16, 143–144, 145, 149–150, 159–162 specific, I:60, 140, 143–144, 152, 154(n.10), 160–161 life expectancy, I:81, 93 II:262 marriage, I:16, 73, 75–76, 77, 79, 93, 142, 149 II:164, 166, 293 see also “intermarriage” supra Medicare, II:282 military service, I:60 mortality, I:32–35, 80, 81, 82–83, 86–89, 91, 92, 93, 137, 146 II:256, 258, 264, 266, 372–380, 383–384, 387 political factors, I:16, 138, 143–145, 147, 153, 155–166 population size and growth, I:16, 22–23, 61, 135–138, 140 II:254 poverty, I:146 II:292 prenatal care, II:279 racism and discrimination, I:147–149, 420 II:391 regional demographics, I:22–23, 50, 51, 58, 60, 136(n.2), 141 religion, I:147–148, 154, 155–165 relocation of, I:56, 58, 60, 61, 141, 150, 151–152 II:44

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I reservation inhabitants, I:56, 58, 60, 61, 77, 138–139, 140, 142, 143–144, 150–151 II:44, 263 see also Indian Health Service state-level factors, I:139, 140, 145, 150, 159–160, 251 II:384 suicide, II:337–338, 379–380 teenage pregnancy, I:67, 68, 93 II:359, 361 tribal affiliation/enrollment, I:138–140, 142–143 tribal membership requirements, I:139– 140, 144 tribal sovereignty, I:143–144, 145, 146– 147, 165–166 undercounting, I:42, 388 urban areas, I:53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 71, 141–142, 150, 151–152 II:262–263 veterans, II:422 wealth, II:227, 237–238 welfare, I:15, 147 II:156–157, 164–165, 166, 171 Anti-Drug Abuse Act, II:15, 26 Antiquities Act, I:160 Apartheid, I:13, 288, 303–304, 306–308, 309– 310 see also Jim Crow laws Arizona, I:109, 140 Armed Forces, see Military service Armed Forces Qualification Test, II:141 Asian Indians classification of, I:41, 177, 255 criminal justice system, II:44 educational attainment, I:180, 181, 209 fertility, I:66 health status, general, II:266 immigrants, I:51, 60, 175, 176, 177, 205, 206, 209, 210 mortality, I:81, 83 II:263 regional demographics, I:51, 60 single parents, I:77 Asian Pacific Planning and Policy Council, I:173 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:16, 17, 94, 170–199, 277 adolescent violence, II:323 affirmative action, I:171, 274 age factors, I:48, 49, 66, 68, 81, 86–87 II:282 attitudes of, I:189, 209, 223 businesses owned by, II:202 cancer, II:373–374, 380, 386 cardiovascular disease, II:372–373 census data, I:177–178 children, II:319, 352, 353 children of immigrants, I:228–229 Civil Rights Movement, I:173, 174 classification of, I:5, 22, 40, 41, 170(n.1), 177–178, 255, 267 II:257, 371, 384–385, 387, 398 conference agenda, I:474–475 II:436–437 criminal justice system, II:44, 45 cultural factors, I:69, 178, 222, 223, 245–246, 260 II:263, 287, 384–385, 398, 399 demographics, general, I:23–24, 50, 51, 57–58, 60, 93, 174–182 disabilities, II:267 education, I:188–189, 192 educational attainment, I:174, 179–182, 187–189, 209, 251, 348, 379 II:102–103, 142, 145, 292, 319 elderly, II:266 electoral issues, I:170–174, 178, 179, 180, 182–193 employment, I:225, 227 II:102–104, 126, 128, 129, 130–132, 133, 134, 135, 145 fertility, I:63, 66, 68, 70, 71, 93 funding, electoral participation, I:171, 172, 173, 192 gender factors, I:180 II:102, 126, 128, 129, 130–132, 133, 134, 135, 141–143, 145

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Hawaii, residing in, I:51, 60, 171, 173, 176, 183, 185, 186, 191 II:399 see also Hawaiian Natives health care, II:285 health-care professionals, II:286 health insurance, II:281–282, 283 health risk factors, II:272–276 (passim) health status, II:256, 263, 272–276, 281– 282, 283, 285, 286, 292, 373–374, 380, 384–385, 386, 398 housing conditions, I:36–37 immigrants, I:23, 38–39, 48, 55–56, 57, 91, 93, 173, 175–176, 177, 184–189, 192, 205, 209, 210, 213–220, 223, 227–228, 407–409, 425 II:44, 237, 282 see also “naturalization” infra immunizations, II:362 income, I:30–31, 32, 114, 411 II:102, 128, 129, 229 infant mortality, I:32, 88–89, 90 II:265 infants, birth weight, II:319 infants, fetal alcohol exposure, II:320– 321 intermarriage, I:75, 76, 177, 178, 259 II:293 life expectancy, I:81 II:263, 266 litigation, I:173, 255 marriage, I:16, 73, 75, 76, 77, 79, 177, 178, 259 II:164, 166, 266, 293 mental illness, I:178 mortality, I:81, 82–83, 86–89, 90, 91 II:258, 263, 265, 266, 371–380, 384–385, 387 naturalization, I:173, 186, 187–189, 255 neighborhood segregation/diversity, I:14, 37–38, 39, 44, 401, 407–409, 411, 414–415, 425 II:44 political issues, I:38, 170–199 population size and growth, I:16, 22–23, 43, 44, 61, 174–175, 182, 250 II:352 prenatal care, II:279 projections, I:16, 43, 44, 61 racism and discrimination, I:172, 173–174, 192, 228, 260, 277, 280, 281, 285, 286 II:142, 390 regional demographics, I:23–24, 50, 51, 57–58, 60, 93, 178, 215– 220 research methodology, I:177–179 II:367 socioeconomic status, I:91, 174, 177, 233 II:385 see also “income” supra state-level factors, I:171–172, 173, 183 suburban areas, I:190, 191, 456 teenage pregnancy, I:68 II:361 test scores, I:348 urban areas, I:53, 54, 55–56, 57–58, 93, 183–184, 187, 214, 216–217, 219, 220, 228–229, 233, 250, 441, 456 II:44–45 wages, I:14 II:102–104, 126, 129, 141–143 see also “neighborhood segregation/ diversity” supra wealth, II:228, 237, 249 welfare, II:156–157, 164–165, 166, 390 see also specific groups Assimilation cultural, I:23, 60, 125–126, 220–221, 222, 223– 224, 236–237, 246, 258–259 II:88–89, 287–288, 292, 398, 399 economic, II:85–88, 224–228 health effects, II:287–288, 292, 398, 399 Hispanics, I:125–126 II:85–88, 102–103, 287, 292

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I spatial, I:391–392, 403; see also Segregation Asylees, see Refugees and asylees Attitudes, I:8, 12–13, 264–301 about affirmative action, I:271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–344 II:36 of American Indians, I:155 of Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:189, 209, 223 of Blacks, affirmative action, I:272–273, 274, 324–344 criminal justice system, II:1, 5–6, 14– 15, 33, 35 health care system, II:417–420 immigrants, I:221–222, 253 low-wage work, II:109 marriage, I:71, 74, 75, 272 residential desegregation, I:411–412 students, I:368–378, 380–384 teachers, I:13, 378–380 teenage pregnancy, I:66–67 consumerism, I:208–209 of health care providers, II:278 of Hispanics, immigrants, I:223 students, I:380–384 teachers, I:13, 379, 380 of immigrants, I:236–237 about marriage, Black vs White attitudes, I:74, 75, 272 research methodology, I:265–269 II:388–389 of students, I:368–378, 380–384 teachers, attitudes of, I:13, 378–380 attitudes of students toward, I:381, 382–384 I:13, 378–380 of Whites, affirmative action, I:271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–330, 331–337 students, I:380–384 teachers, I:13, 378–380 see also Public opinion; Racism and discrimination B Birthrate, see Fertility Birth weight, II:264, 279, 311, 318–320, 339– 340, 399, 400 Black-owned businesses I:15, 329–330 II:175–176, 190–220, 239 Blacks, I:93, 103, 335 adolescents, I:350–384 (passim), 423 II:3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47, 323– 339, 340–341, 361–364 (passim) affirmative action, I:272–273, 274, 318, 321, 331–332, 334– 344 II:5, 9, 10, 36, 75–79, 139, 190, 191, 193, 202, 204–214 age factors, I:45, 46, 48, 66–67, 68, 71, 93, 350–356 II:9, 13, 42–43, 165, 340, 378, 387 see also “adolescents” supra and “elderly persons” infra alcohol use/drug trafficking and abuse, I:6 II:3, 4, 12, 14–18, 26, 29–30, 36–40, 46– 47, 328–334, 341, 381, 382, 397 Alzheimer’s disease, II:288–289 attitudes, affirmative action, I:272–273, 274, 324–344 criminal justice system, II:1, 5–6, 14– 15, 33, 35 health care system, II:417–420 immigrants, I:221–222, 253 low-wage work, II:109 marriage, I:71, 74, 75, 272 residential desegregation, I:411–412 students, I:368–378, 380–384 teachers, I:13, 378–380 teenage pregnancy, I:66–67 Brazil, racial discrimination, I:304–307, 310–316 businesses owned by, I:15, 329–330 II:175–176, 190–220, 239 capital punishment, II:12–14, 25–26, 33 census undercounting, gender factors, I:42 II:387–388

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I children, II:225–226, 289–290, 311–339, 353, 354, 355 (passim), 367, 369, 400 classification of, I:5, 40–41, 267 II:255, 371 crime and criminal justice system, I:18–19, 34–36, 319, 424, 427 II:1–51, 110, 115, 322, 323–332, 361, 362, 363, 378–379 juveniles, II:3, 14–15, 29, 39, 42–43, 46–47 public opinion of discrimination by, II:1, 5–6, 14–15, 21–22, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33, 34–35, 48 see also Police; “drug…,” “homicide,” “jury selection,” and “sentencing…” infra cultural factors, I:246, 253, 256, 257, 264, 312, 368–375 II:174, 385–387 see also “music” infra demographics, general, I:43, 44, 250, 437, 438, 445 II:41–44, 46, 352 diabetes, II:288, 340 digital divide, I:25 educational admissions, I:334–335, 337–342 II:286, 391 educational attainment, I:25–26, 27, 38, 116, 180, 222, 311, 348– 387, 423, 425, 427 II:56–58, 59, 63–66, 69–72, 78–79, 95, 99, 102, 104–112 (passim), 115, 127, 136–140 (passim), 145–147, 165, 167, 190, 292, 319 see also “test scores” infra education, general, I:195, 362 II:247 education, teacher certification, I:364 elderly persons, health status, II:265–266 electoral issues, I:121, 186 employment, I:9–10, 28, 35–36, 56, 58, 110, 112, 121, 183, 222, 422, 423–424, 425, 436, 441–442 II:98–101, 134, 165, 194, 196, 218, 278, 343, 391–392, 397–398 see also Military service employment, discrimination, II:28, 35– 36, 107–108, 222 employment, gender factors, I:27–30, 423, 424 II:52–55, 61–73, 75–76, 78–79, 81, 98– 147, 174, 179, 183, 278, 326, 397– 398 employment, health risk factors, II:278, 289–291 employment, impacts of segregation, II:108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 139, 144 see also Spatial mismatch hypothesis fertility, I:63–70 (passim), 77, 93 gender factors, I:42, 71, 74, 180, 373 II:1, 22, 33, 42, 52–58, 158–160, 174, 179, 183, 323–328, 331, 336, 337, 341, 361–364 (passim), 378, 382– 383, 384–385, 387–388 see also “employment, gender factors” supra genetics, II:255, 288–289 health care, II:284, 286, 392–395, 412, 414–421 see also “hospitalization” infra health-care professionals, II:286, 295 health insurance, II:281, 283, 413 health risk factors, I:33 II:272–278 (passim), 287–291, 395–396, 397 health status, general, II:254, 258, 259– 260, 265–266, 270, 287–291, 314, 381–383, 385–386, 397, 417 HIV, I:34 II:377–378 homicide, I:34, 35 II:2, 25–26, 27, 33, 259, 322, 323–328, 340, 361–364 (passim), 378, 379 hospitalization, II:284–285, 393–394, 413, 415–421 housing conditions, I:36–37, 220 II:226, 238–239, 240–242 hypertension, II:278, 288, 294, 396, 400 immigrants, I:186, 219 II:260, 340, 386–387

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I immunizations, II:358, 360 income, I:15, 30–31, 32, 38, 58, 111, 113, 114, 411, 421–422, 425 II:2, 54, 55, 128, 165, 220, 225, 229–234 infant mortality, I:32, 88, 90 II:264, 265, 357, 362 infants, birth weight, II:318, 319, 339– 340, 400 infants, fetal alcohol exposure, II:320– 321, 340 infants, iron deficiency, II:314, 315, 339 intermarriage, I:74, 75, 272, 401 II:293 jury selection, I:319 II:2, 7–11, 33, 41 language factors, II:386 lead poisoning, II:316, 317, 339–340 life expectancy, I:81, 86–87, 93 II:259, 266, 292, 382–383, 384–385 marriage, I:71, 72, 74, 75, 78, 93, 272, 422 II:133, 164, 293, 397–398 mathematics achievement, I:25, 349– 350, 351, 353, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 365, 366, 367 Medicaid, II:281 Medicare, II:281, 284, 392, 413 mental illness, II:188–289, 381–382 migration within U.S., I:51, 391–392, 393–394 II:45, 104 see also “regional factors” infra military personnel, I:15 II:174–189, 393–394, 412, 414–421 mortality, I:32–35, 81, 82–83, 86–89, 90, 91–92, 93, 424, 425 II:179, 254, 256, 258, 259, 260, 264, 265, 266, 277, 290, 291, 361, 363, 372– 380, 382–383, 384–385, 387–388, 397, 417–418 music, I:341, 369, 372–375 political issues, I:38, 121, 129, 186, 279–280, 302–316 II:17, 34, 40–41, 78 see also Civil Rights Movement population size and growth, I:16, 22–23, 43, 44, 61, 250, 437, 438, 445 II:41–44, 46, 352 poverty, I:311, 421–424, 425–426 II:55, 67, 116, 218, 225, 274, 292, 324– 327, 343, 357, 400 prenatal care, II:279 projections, I:16, 43, 44, 61 psychological factors, II:5–6, 33, 35–36, 278, 335, 381–382 race, concept of, I:246, 253, 256, 257 racial profiling by police, II:3–7, 23, 24– 25, 29, 33, 35–36 racism and discrimination, I:104, 221, 222, 264–267, 269–295, 302– 316, 333, 348 II:106–108, 109, 113–114, 117, 125, 137– 141, 142, 144, 147, 184–186, 188, 195, 239, 246–247, 367, 369, 389, 390, 391–396, 400–401, 420–421 reading achievement, I:349–350, 352, 354, 356, 360–362, 366, 368, 369, 370, 372 regional factors, demographics, I:23–24, 50, 51, 52, 56–57, 58–59, 61, 218 II:104, 106 health status, II:260 urban areas, I:52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II:104 see also “migration within U.S.” supra segregation, I:6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17, 244–245, 269–272, 273, 278, 279 II:108–109 educational, I:269–271 II:198, 204 employment impacts, II:108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 139, 144 health care, II:281 Jim Crow laws, I:6, 9, 13, 244–245, 292, 293, 294, 304, 305, 306, 308–310, 314, 395, 402 II:281 residential, I:6, 37–38, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 283–284, 294–295, 392–403, 405–406, 409–428, 436

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I II:108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 227, 240, 241, 243, 326, 331–332, 343, 391–392, 400–401 sentencing and incarceration, I:18, 35 II:2, 11–18, 22, 23–24, 26–28, 29–30, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40–48, 110, 115 smoking, I:33 II:272, 397 socioeconomic status, general, I:409–410, 421–422, 424–425 II:34–35, 52–56, 254, 270, 291, 386, 388 see also “educational attainment,” “employment…,” and “income” supra and “wealth” infra South Africa, apartheid, I:13, 288, 303– 304, 306–308, 309–310 suburban areas, I:52, 289, 416, 438, 456 II:107, 192–193, 391–392 suicide, II:34, 335–339, 341, 379–380, 381 teacher certification, I:364 teachers attitudes toward, I:13, 378–380 teenage pregnancy, I:66–67, 68, 77, 93 II:147, 359, 361 television, I:369, 370 test scores, I:13, 323, 334, 335, 337–342, 348–367, 369, 370, 372, 383–384, 385–387 II:73, 74, 105–106, 141, 313 urban areas, I:52–59 (passim), 129, 218, 219, 220, 221–222, 233, 253, 376–378, 399, 400, 402–403, 456 II:1, 4, 22, 36, 39, 40, 104, 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 165, 191–193, 198–199, 208–213, 284, 326–327, 343, 391– 392 see also “segregation” supra veterans, health care, I:18 II:393–394, 412, 414–421 wages, I:14, 29, 30, 38, 222, 306 II:52–53, 60–69, 70, 76, 78–79, 81, 94, 95, 98–100, 104–110, 115, 138–141, 143, 164, 326 wealth, I:15, 34–35 II:92–94, 225–230, 232–234, 236–247 welfare, I:15, 278 II:156–171 (passim), 390 White racism and discrimination, see “racism and discrimination” under Whites Black Wealth/White Wealth, II:225, 241 Blank, Rebecca M. I:21–39, 477 II:439 Blumstein, Alfred I:6, 477 II:21–31, 46, 439 Bobo, Lawrence D. I:12, 14, 264–301, 477 II:439 Bonilla, Frank I:16, 103–134, 478 II:440 Boston, Thomas D. I:15, 478 II:190–221, 449 Brazil, I:13, 304–307, 310–316 Breast cancer, II:383 Brookings Institution, I:453 Bureau of Census, I:40, 104 fertility, I:65 internal migration, I:56, 58 minority-owned businesses, II:193, 200 racial and ethnic classification, I:4–5, 7, 40–42, 57, 119–120, 121–122 undercounting, I:42, 106, 388 II:387–388 see also Current Population Survey Bureau of Indian Affairs, I:139 Bureau of Justice Statistics, II:27 Bush, George, I:326 Butler, John Sibley I:15, 478 II:174–189, 440 C California affirmative action, I:171, 330 American Indians, I:139, 140, 251 Asian/Pacific Islander vote, I:171, 173, 175–176, 183, 184, 251 Blacks, I:175 II:43

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Hispanics, I:51, 107, 109, 175, 203, 251 illegal immigrants, I:203 immigrants, other, I:175–176, 206 minority population growth, II:402 urban renewal, I:446 Camarillo, Albert M. I:16, 103–134, 478 II:440 Canada immigrants from, I:216–217 Indians, I:135–141 (passim) Cancer I:91, 92 II:272, 373–374, 380, 382–383, 384–385, 386, 393, 399, 418 Capital punishment, II:12–14, 25–26, 33 Cardiovascular disease I:91, 92 II:259, 274, 285, 328, 372–373, 380, 393– 395, 414–415, 421, 423, 424 see also Hypertension Carter, Jimmy, II:78 Caucasians, see Whites Census data I:40 II:371 American Indians, I:42, 137–138, 140, 142, 388 II:371 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:177–178 Blacks, I:42 II:387–388 fertility, I:65 funding and census counts, I:43 Hispanics, I:41–42, 57, 106, 107, 119–120, 121–122, 338 II:85 illegal immigrants, II:85 internal migration issues, I:56, 58 minority-owned businesses, II:200–204 segregation indices, I:110, 419–420 undercounting, I:42, 106, 388 II:387–388 see also Bureau of Census; Classification issues; Current Population Survey Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences (Stanford University), I:1 Center for Employment Training, II:113, 117 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, II:321, 357, 367 Cerebrovascular disorders, II:415–416, 422 Characteristics of Business Owners, II:200, 203 Child abuse, II:343 Children adolescent violence, early childhood prevention, II:327 American Indians, II:353, 359, 360 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:228–229 II:319, 352, 353 behavioral and developmental problems, I:18 II:311–344 Blacks, II:225–226, 289–290, 311–339, 353, 354, 355 (passim), 367, 369, 400 demographics, general, II:352–356 diet, II:274 federal programs and health status, I:5, 18 II:163–166, 342–344, 351, 364–370 health issues, I:18 II:311–322, 339–340, 342–344, 351–359, 366 see also Birth weight; Infant mortality; Infants; Pregnancy Hispanics, I:25, 110, 119 II:102, 228–229, 289–290, 340, 353, 355, 400 household structure, I:25 immigrants and of immigrants, I:49, 218, 223, 228–237 II:102–103 immunizations, I:92 II:357–359 iron deficiencies, II:311, 312, 314–315, 339 lead poisoning, II:289–290, 311, 315–318 neighborhood segregation, impacts on, I:423 population age structure, I:45–48 poverty, impacts on, II:354, 356, 357–359, 400 psychological factors, II:311–318

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I desegregation, I:269–271, 273, 284, 411– 415, 419 immigration patterns, I:201 racial profiling, II:6 refugees, I:212 welfare, II:152–153 see also Attitudes; Racism and discrimination Public Use Micro Samples, II:137, 138(n.9), 140 Public Works Employment Act. II:205, 207, 214 Puerto Ricans I:5, 42, 54, 57, 67, 74, 77 II:227 educational attainment, I:114–115, 116, 119, 143 employment, I:111, 112 II:53, 101, 104, 105, 108, 130, 131, 132, 133, 135, 143 health care, II:286 health insurance, II:280–281 health status, II:256, 259, 261, 262, 267, 357 income, I:113 II:55, 128, 129 mortality I:83, 90, 92 II:265 political participation, I:119, 127–128 regional demographics. I:51, 57 segregation, I:110, 406, 420, 425 Q Quotas, see Affirmative action R Racial Justice Act, II:13–14 Racial profiling police, II:3–7, 23, 24–25, 29, 33, 35–40 real estate sales, I:391–392, 398, 401, 409–410, 411, 413, 415–421, 427, 428 Racism and discrimination I:2–3, 6–7, 13, 17, 19, 104, 264–295 (passim), 302–316 II:77 age discrimination, II:77–78 American Indians, I:147–149, 420 II:391 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:172, 173–174, 192, 228, 260, 277, 280, 281, 285, 286 II:142, 390 Black-owned businesses, II:195, 239 Blacks, I:104, 221, 222, 264–267, 269–295, 302– 316, 333, 348 II:106–108, 109, 113–114, 117, 125, 137– 141, 142, 144, 147, 184–186, 188, 195, 239, 246–247, 367, 369, 389, 390, 391–396, 400–401, 420–421 Brazil, I:304–307 causes of, country comparisons, I:304– 307 conference agenda, I:475 II:437 criminal justice system, I:280–283 II:1–51, 392 see also Capital punishment; Homicide; Jury selection; Police; Sentencing and incarceration defined, I:302 disabled persons, I:2 II:77, 78, 266–267 educational, I:8–9, 17, 269–271, 273, 284, 295, 320– 321, 364, 445 II:198, 204, 391 educational, discussion by mixed racial students, I:256–257 employment, I:6–7, 8, 9, 14–15, 28, 35–36, 107–108, 222, 271, 282, 320, 321, 322, 323– 325, 333–334 II:76–78, 106–108, 109, 113–114, 117, 125, 137–141, 142, 144, 147, 204, 223, 391–392 suburban areas, II:107, 114, 391–392 gender discrimination, II:77, 107, 113, 125, 396 genetic explanations for, II:255, 288 government classification systems and, I:255

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I health insurance coverage, I:10–11 II:392–394 health status and care, I:2, 6 II:77, 78, 367–369, 382, 391–396, 398, 400–401, 420–421 health status and psychological stress due to racism, II:5–6, 33, 35–36, 277–278, 395–396, 398, 400 Hispanics, I:121, 123–124, 125, 221, 228, 264, 274, 278, 280, 281, 285, 286, 420 II:107, 142, 367, 369, 390, 392, 396, 401, 420 housing discrimination/neighborhood segregation, I:6–7, 8, 17, 37–38, 39, 125, 221, 226, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 279, 283– 284, 294–295, 320, 391–434, 445 II:113, 240–243, 391–392 international perspectives, I:13, 302–317 methodological issues, II:388–389 military service, II:184–186, 188, 393–394, 420–421 police, I:280–281 psychological effects of, II:5–6, 33, 35–36, 277–278 race, concept of, I:244 reduction of, I:1, 7, 123, 294–296, 343 see also Affirmative action; Civil Rights Movement religion, I:39, 49, 61 scapegoating, I:302–317 South Africa, apartheid, I:13, 288, 303– 304, 306–308, 309–310 stereotyping, I:273–280, 292–293, 305, 333 II:3–7, 389, 390 see also Racial profiling urban areas, immigrants, I:218 Veterans Health Administration, II:393– 394, 420–421 voting, I:9 Whites, Brazil/South Africa compared to U.S., I:13, 302–316 reverse discrimination, I:324, 326, 327–329 U.S., I:6, 9, 13, 244–245, 264–267, 269–295, 322, 324, 326, 327–329, 337, 413, 418–421, 425 II:106–107, 186, 246–247, 389, 390, 391, 400, 420–421 see also “affirmative action” and “crime…” under Whites see also Affirmative action; Racial profiling; Segregation Reading ability American Indians, I:149 cross-group test score comparisons, I:349–350, 352, 354, 356, 358, 359, 360– 362, 366, 368, 369, 372 II:74, 313 Reagan, Ronald I:323, 326, 427 II:76–77, 327 Refugee Act, I:175 Refugees and asylees, I:17, 51, 52, 175, 188, 203–204, 207, 211–213 Regional factors American Indians, I:22–23, 50, 51, 58, 60, 136(n.2), 141 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:23–24, 50, 51, 57–58, 60, 93, 178, 215–220 Blacks, health status, II:260 Blacks in urban areas, I:52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II:104 demographics, general, I:23–24, 46, 49– 51, 56–62, 93 economic factors in internal migration, I: 46, 58, 59, 60 Hispanics, I:23–24, 50, 51, 57, 59, 61, 93, 105, 107, 214–217, 218–220 immigrants, general, I:49, 51, 57, 61, 175–176, 203, 205–206, 230–233 political issues, I:454 projections, I:51, 57 residential segregation, I:391–392, 393– 394, 399, 400, 402–403 urban areas, Blacks, I:52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II:104 urban planning, I:435–436, 453–455, 458– 461 urban/suburban, spatial mismatch hypothesis, I:17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II:108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Whites, I:39, 49, 61 see also Migration within U.S.; State-level factors; specific U.S. regions and states Religion, I:267 American Indians, I:147–148, 154, 155– 165 Brazil, South Africa, and U.S., racism, I: 305–306, 312 Report of the Secretary’s Task Force on Black and Minority Health, II:397 Research methodology, I:2–12 acculturation, II:287 adolescent mental health, II:322, 341–342 American Indian remains, use in research, I:154, 155–161 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:177–179 II:367 cultural/linguistic factors, I:178 employment, neoclassical economic theory, I:136–138 health insurance coverage, II:283 health status and health care, I:17–18 II:255–258, 267–270, 283, 293–294, 322, 341–342, 366–369, 382, 383–389, 397–399, 412 Hispanics, II:367 minority-owned businesses, II:200–203 mortality, I:80, 81, 85 II:382, 383–389 occupational dissimilarity index, II: 127(n.4) race and ethnicity defined, I:2–4, 243– 260 see also Classification issues racial attitudes, I:265–269 II:388–389 urban/suburban dynamics, I:453– 461 veterans health care, II:412 wage data from CPS, II:84, 85 wealth, II:227–228 welfare, effects of, II:171–172, 342–344 see also Aggregation and disaggregation techniques; Classification issues; Statistical techniques Reservations, American Indians, I:56, 58, 60, 61, 77, 138–139, 140, 142, 143–144, 150–151 II:44, 263 Riots I:272–273, 282, 322–323, 368, 445 II:1 Risk factors, health-related, II:271–278, 289– 291, 294, 385, 422 American Indians/Asians and Pacific Islanders, II:272–276 (passim) assimilation and, II:287–288, 292, 398, 399 Blacks, I:33 II:272–278 (passim), 287–291, 395–396, 397 employment, health risk factors, II:278, 289–291 gender, II:272 Hispanics, II:272–276 (passim), 287, 289– 290, 314, 315, 316, 317, 339 interventions, II:295 smoking, I:33 II:272, 289, 328–331 (passim), 333, 397, 399 socioeconomic status, II:268–271, 269– 271, 277, 291, 292 stress due to racism, II:5–6, 33, 35–36, 277–278 Whites, II:272–277, 287–290, 314 see also Alcohol and drug abuse; Environmental toxins Risk factors, welfare-related, II:152, 153, 162–172 Rockefeller Foundation, I:422 Rural areas, I:2, 52 American Indian, including reservation inhabitants, I:56, 58, 60, 61, 71, 77, 138–139, 140, 142, 143–144, 150–151 II:44, 263 see also Indian Health Service developing countries, I:208 Hispanics, I:59–60, 213–214 welfare, II:162–163, 165 Whites, II:45, 165 see also Agricultural sector Russell Sage Foundation, I:422 Rutgers University, I:436

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I S Salaries, see also Wages and salaries Sandefur, Gary D. I:15–16, 40–102, 482–483 II:444–445 Scapegoating, I:302–316 Schizophrenia, II:381, 382 Scholastic Aptitude Test I:385–387 II:73, 74 Segregation, I:9, 11, 12, 17, 37–38, 39, 245, 251 American Indians, educational, I:149– 152 American Indians, relocation, I:56, 58, 60, 61, 141, 150, 151–152 see also Reservations, American Indians Asian Americans, residential, I:14, 37–38, 39, 44, 401, 407–409, 411, 414–415, 425 II:44 attitudes toward, I:411–412 Blacks, I:6, 9, 13, 244–245, 269–272, 273, 278, 279 II:108–109 educational, I:269–271 II:198, 204 employment impacts, II:108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 139, 144 health care, II:281 Jim Crow laws, I:6, 9, 13, 244–245, 292, 293, 294, 304, 305, 306, 308–310, 314, 395, 402 II:281 residential, I:6, 37–38, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 283–284, 294–295, 392–403, 405–406, 409–428, 436 II:108–109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 227, 240, 241, 243, 331–332, 391– 392, 400–401 Brazil, I:13, 304–307, 310–316 census data, segregation indices, I:110, 419–420 children, impacts on, I:423 see also “educational” infra conference agenda, I:474 II:436 economic factors, general, I:391–392, 409–410, 411, 415–424, 427, 428 educational, I:149–152, 269–271, 273, 284, 295, 320– 321, 364, 445 II:198, 204, 391 employment impacts for Blacks, II:108– 109, 110, 112, 113, 116–117, 139, 144 see also Spatial mismatch hypothesis Hispanics, residential, I:37–38, 104, 107, 110, 125, 401, 403–407, 411, 414– 415, 420, 425 housing discrimination/neighborhood segregation, I:6–7, 8, 12, 17, 37–38, 39, 125, 221, 226, 235, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 279, 283–284, 294–295, 391– 434, 445 II:44, 110, 113, 116–117, 240–243, 391– 392 immigrants, residential, I:220–221, 391– 392, 403, 407–409, 414, 425 income and, I:411, 421–424 litigation, I:320–321, 395 II:104 minority-owned businesses, I:190 mortality, II:392 poverty and, I:421–424, 425–426 socioeconomic status and, general, I:391–392, 409–410, 411, 421–424, 425 II:400 South Africa, apartheid, I:13, 288, 303– 304, 306–308, 309–310 spatial mismatch hypothesis, I:17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II:108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147 Whites, I:37–38, 39, 220–221, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 283–284, 392–406, 409–419, 425 II:392 Sentencing and incarceration I:6, 18, 35, 427 II:2, 11–18, 22, 23–24, 26–28, 29–30, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40–48, 327 see Capital punishment

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Shapiro, Thomas M. I:15, 483 II:222–251, 445 Single parents I:17, 24, 25, 62, 76–80, 93 II:352, 354, 355, 397–398 income, I:31 welfare, II:162, 163, 164, 166, 170 Slavery I:305, 308 II:175, 238, 255, 287 Small Business Administration, II:204 Small businesses I:15 II:190, 191, 196–197, 198–199, 201, 205, 239 health insurance coverage, II:280 Smelser, Neil J. I:1–20, 472, 483 II:434, 445 Smith, James P. I:14, 483 II:52–97, 445 Smithsonian Institution, I:156–157, 159, 160, 161, 162 Smoking I:33 II:272, 289, 328–331 (passim), 333, 397, 399 see also Marijuana Socioeconomic status I:9, 11, 21, 30–32, 38 II:54–59 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:91, 174, 177, 233 II:385 birth weight, II:318 health status and care, general, II:268– 271, 277, 291, 292, 294–295, 311, 383, 388, 389, 391, 397, 398, 399, 400, 411–412, 413, 416–417 Hispanics, I:16, 23, 38, 43, 44, 61, 103, 106–107, 109 homicide rates, II:324 immigrants, general, I:206, 208–209, 224–228, 232–238 infant mortality, I:85 iron deficiencies, II:314 mortality, I:85 II:254 race, concept of, I:256 racism, general, I:302 residential segregation and, I:391–392, 409–410, 411, 421–424, 425 II:400 single-person households, I:25, 31 veterans, I:411–412 see also Educational attainment/ achievement; Employment; Housing; Income; Poverty; Wealth South Africa, apartheid, I:13, 288, 303–304, 306–308, 309–310 South Carolina, II:28 Southern U.S. criminal justice system, II:28 demographics, various groups, I:23–24, 50, 51, 56–57, 59, 60, 61, 206, 396 II:45, 52, 104, 400 health indices, II:260 residential segregation, I:399, 400, 402– 403 Spatial mismatch hypothesis I:17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II:108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147 Special Agricultural Workers, I:200–201 State Child Health Insurance Program, II:365 State-level factors I:51–52, 62 II:352 affirmative action, I:319, 325–326, 329–330, 331, 333 II:206 American Indians, I:139, 140, 145, 150, 159–160, 251 II:384 Asian/Pacific Islander, elections, I:171– 172, 173, 183 Black/White residential segregation, I: 393–398 (passim) criminal justice system, II:7–9, 15, 28 employment discrimination laws, II:139 gun control, II:328, 338–339 Hispanics, I:51, 107, 109, 129, 175, 203, 251 jury selection, II:7–9 mortality data, II:254 race, defined, I:254

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I tax policies, I:446 teacher certification, I:348, 364 urban renewal, I:446 wealth accumulation, II:238 welfare, II:162, 342 see also Regional factors; specific states The State of the Nation’s Cities, I:436 Statistical techniques, I:94 employment participation, neoclassical economic theory, I:136–138 fertility, I:62–63 Hispanics, I:121–122 infant mortality, I:85 mortality, I:80, 81, 85 race and ethnicity defined, I:4 welfare participation and risk factors, II:171–172 see also Aggregation and disaggregation techniques; Classification issues Stroke, see Cerebrovascular disorders Suburban areas, I:17 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:190, 191, 456 Blacks, I:52, 289, 416, 438, 456 II:107, 192–193, 391–392 employment discrimination, II:107, 114, 391–392 environmental concerns, I:451–452 Hispanics, I:438, 456 immigrants, I:234–235, 238 income, I:437–440 minority-owned businesses, II:192–193 population growth, I:437, 438, 445 poverty, I:437, 439, 459–460 spatial mismatch hypothesis, I:17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II:108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147 Suicide I:17–18, 34 II:34, 379–380, 381 adolescents, II:311, 322, 335–339, 341 Supplemental Security Income, II:154–158 (passim) Surface Transportation and Uniform Relocation Assistance Act, II:214 Surface Transportation Assistance Act, II:214 Survey of Income and Education, II:142 Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP), II:138, 226, 229, 230–231 Survey of Minority-Owned Business Enterprises, II:200–203, 207 Survey of Urban Inequality, I:442, 455 Swain, Carol M. I:12, 318–347, 483 II:445 T Taxation I:11, 445, 446, 450 II:115, 154, 200–201, 227, 238–239, 371 Teachers accountability of, I:364 attitudes of, I:13, 378–380 attitudes of students toward, I:381, 382– 384 certification testing, I:348, 364 pupil-to-teacher ratios/class size, I:351 Technological factors see also Computers and computer science Teenage pregnancy I:62, 65, 66–67, 68, 76–77, 93, 423 II:147, 340, 359, 361, 362, 365–366, 399 Teenagers, see Adolescents Television, I:369, 370 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, II:153, 154, 161, 342 see also Aid to Families with Dependent Children Tennessee, II:28 Tennessee Star Experiment, I:351 Tests and testing I:12–13, 348–390 II:313 affirmative action and, I:327–329, 333, 334, 335, 337–342 American Indians, I:348 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:348 Blacks, I:13, 323, 334, 335, 337–342, 348–367, 369, 370, 372, 383–384, 385–387 II:73, 74, 105–106, 141, 313 cultural factors, I:12 health status and, II:311

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I Hispanics, I:13, 348–356, 358, 360, 365, 366, 367, 370, 383–387 II:73–74, 141, 313 lead poisoning and test scores, II:316 mathematics, I:25, 349–350, 351, 353, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 365 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), I:25–26, 348– 372, 380, 383–384 reading, I:349–350, 352, 354, 356, 358, 359, 360–362, 368, 369 Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), I:385– 387 teacher certification, I:348, 364 Whites, I:25–26, 348–367, 383–387 II:73, 74, 141, 313 see also National Assessment of Educational Progress; Scholastic Aptitude Test Texas American Indians, I:140 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:183 Hispanics, I:51, 107, 109 immigrants, I:206 minority population growth, II:402 Thomas, W.I., I:3 Thornton, Russell I:16, 135–169, 483–484 II:445–446 Tobacco use, see Smoking Toxic materials, see Environmental toxins Trade unions, I:9 Transportation to health care services, II:278 urban, I:456, 459–461 to work, I:2, 456, 458, 459–460 II:109, 113, 116 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, I:459 U Undocumented immigration, see Illegal immigration Unions, labor, see Trade unions Unmarked Human Burial Sites and Skeletal Remains Protection Act (Nebraska), I:160 Urban areas, I:51–56, 58–62, 93, 435–436 American Indians, I:53, 54, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 71, 141–142, 150, 151–152 II:262–263 Asians and Pacific Islanders, I:53, 54, 55–56, 57–58, 93, 183–184, 187, 214, 216–217, 219, 220, 228–229, 233, 250, 441, 456 II:44–45 Blacks, I:52–59 (passim), 129, 218, 219, 220, 221–222, 233, 253, 376–378, 399, 400, 402–403, 456 II:1, 4, 22, 36, 39, 40, 104, 108–109, 112, 113, 116, 165, 191–193, 198–199, 208–213, 284, 326–327, 343, 391– 392 Blacks, regional demographics, I:52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II:104 businesses owned by minorities, II:191– 193, 202, 205–207, 208–213, 214–217 crime and criminal justice system, I:18 II:1, 4, 22, 36, 39, 40, 44–45, 331–332, 333 developing countries, I:208 drug abuse, II:4, 331–332, 333 employment, segregation and, I:17, 422, 423–424, 425 II:391 see “spatial mismatch hypothesis” infra government policies, I:11 health factors, II:262–263, 276, 277, 284, 293 see also “toxins” infra Hispanics, I:52–54, 55, 57, 59–60, 62, 93, 104, 107, 110, 125, 129, 214–217, 218–220, 228–229, 233, 250, 253, 372, 441– 442, 456 II:45, 81–83, 113, 165, 343 immigrants, general, I:17, 52, 57–58, 59, 61–62, 205–206, 214–222, 228–235, 246, 391–392, 403, 407–409, 414, 425 income, suburban vs urban, I:437–440 lead poisoning, II:316 political factors, I:17, 435, 449–450, 451– 452

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I regional factors, I:52, 58, 59, 399, 400, 402–403 II:104 planning, I:435–436, 453–455, 458–461 see “spatial mismatch hypothesis” infra research methodology, urban/suburban dynamics, I:453–461 residential segregation, I:6–7, 8, 12, 17, 37–38, 39, 125, 221, 226, 235, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 278, 279, 283–284, 294–295, 391– 434, 445 II:44, 110, 113, 116–117, 240–243, 391–392 see also “spatial mismatch hypothesis” infra riots, I:272–273, 282, 322–323, 368, 445 II:1 spatial mismatch hypothesis, I:17, 435–443 (passim), 454–456, 458, 459–460 II:108–109, 112, 113, 116, 144–145, 147 toxins, I:435, 436, 443–444, 446–448, 450– 452, 458, 461 transportation, I:456, 459–461 welfare, II:162–163, 165, 167 Whites, I:53, 61–62, 218, 219, 220, 250, 251, 456 II:165 see also “neighborhood segregation” under Whites see also Suburban areas Utah, II:28 V Vaccinations, see Immunizations Veterans American Indians, II:422 G.I.Bill, I:10 health status and care, I:18 II:393–394, 411–424 housing, II:241 Veterans Administration, see Department of Veterans Affairs Veterans Health Administration I:18 II:393–394, 411–429 Vietnamese, I:94 classification of, I:41, 177–178 fertility, I:66 health status, II:267 immigrants, I:56, 175, 176, 205, 209, 212, 216–217 political participation, I:183 regional demographics, I:56, 57 single parents, I:77 wages, I:101, 102 Violence, II:343, 366, 367, 390 adolescents, II:311, 322, 323–328 child abuse, II:343 Civil Rights Movement and, I:320 employment discrimination due to fear of, II:107–108 firearms, II:246, 328, 335, 338–339, 361, 362, 363, 364, 378 race riots, I:272–273, 282, 322–323, 368, 445 II:1 racism and intra-White warfare, I:307– 308, 309, 313 White hate crimes against Blacks, I:412, 427 White racial stereotypes, I:276, 277, 278–280, 305 II:246, 390 see also Accidents and injuries; Crime and criminal justice; Homicide Voluntary Affirmative Marketing Agreement, I:427 Voting, see Electoral issues Voting Rights Act, I:118 W Wages and salaries I:6, 10, 14, 25, 28–30, 236, 348, 442, 444 II:52–54, 59–69, 78–89, 94–95, 98–100, 136– 137, 143, 223 Asians/Pacific Islanders, I:14 II:102–104, 126, 129, 141–143 Blacks, I:14, 29, 30, 38, 222, 306 II:52–53, 60–69, 70, 76, 78–79, 81, 94, 95, 98–100, 104–110, 115, 138–141, 143, 164, 326 Hispanics, I:14, 29, 30 II:53, 54, 60–69, 70, 73, 78, 81–89, 94–95, 101–104, 126, 129, 141–143, 164

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I military personnel, II:184 Whites, I:29, 30 II:54, 60–73, 80, 81, 82, 95, 99–100, 101– 102, 103, 124–125, 129, 138–143, 164, 223 Washington State American Indians, I:140 Wealth I:1, 11, 15, 34–35 II:89–96, 222–251 age factors, II:234–237 classification of racial groups, I:5 conference agenda, I:473 II:435 defined, II:222 Europe vs U.S., II:224, 399 home ownership, II:226, 238–239, 240– 243 income vs, II:222, 225, 229–235 intergenerational transfer, II:243–245, 246, 249 research methodology, II:227–228 see also Income; Poverty; Socioeconomic status Weber, Max I:3–4 II:224 Weinberger, Morris I:484 II:411–429, 446 Welfare I:10, 15 II:152–173, 342–344, 390 age factors, II:165, 167 American Indians, I:15, 147 II:156–157, 164–165, 166, 171 Asians and Pacific Islanders, II:156–157, 164–165, 166, 390 Blacks, I:15, 278 II:156–171 (passim), 390 children, II:163–166, 342–344 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), II:153–158, 160, 161–162, 163, 168, 169 Supplemental Security Income, II:156 Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), II:153, 154, 161, 342 Women, Infants, and Children program, II:315 conference agenda, I:473 II:435 disabled persons, II:154, 156 educational attainment of recipients, II:74, 313 eligibility requirements, II:154–155, 342– 343 employment and, II:144, 153, 162–163, 165, 166, 342 family and household factors, I:15 II:152–153, 164, 166, 167, 172 Food stamps. II:154–158 (passim), 160, 161, 163, 342 funding, II:342 gender factors, II:158–160, 163 Hispanics, I:15, 278 II:156–171 (passim), 390 marital status of recipients, II:162, 163, 164, 166 Medicaid, II:154, 155–156, 160, 161 noncash benefits, II:154–158, 160–161, 163, 281, 342 research methodology, II:171–172, 342– 344 risk factors, II:152, 153, 162–172 rural areas, II:162–163, 165 single parents, II:162, 163, 164, 166, 170 Supplemental Security Income, II:154– 158 (passim) urban areas, II:162–163, 165, 167 Whites, II:156–166 (passim), 390 see also Medicaid Welfare Reform Act, II:342 Western U.S. demographics, various groups, I:23–24, 50, 51, 57, 58, 59, 61, 206 Hispanics, I:23–24, 50, 51, 57, 59, 61, 105, 107 see also Midwestern U.S. Whites adolescents, II:323–331, 335–337, 363 affirmative action, attitudes toward, I:271, 272–273, 274, 282, 292, 293, 294, 329–330, 331–337 affirmative action, other, I:324, 326, 327–329 II:75

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I age factors, I:45, 46, 48, 62, 66–67, 68 II:9, 42, 46–47, 165, 378 alcohol and drug abuse, II:39–40, 46–47, 328–332, 381, 382 Alzheimer’s disease, II:288–289 attitudes of students, I:380–384 birth weight, II:319 Brazil, racial discrimination, I:304–307, 310–316 classification of, I:4–5, 267 II:387 crime and criminal justice system, Black/White issues, I:18–19, 34–36, 41–42 II:1–15, 16–18, 21–22, 25, 26, 28, 33–34, 35, 38–47 (passim), 323–332 cultural factors, I:18, 220–221, 251–254 II:44, 387 diabetes, II:288, 394 digital divide, I:25 disabilities, II:267 drug use and trafficking, II:39–40, 46–47, 328–332 education, affirmative action, I:327–329, 337–342 educational attainment, I:25–26, 27, 116, 180, 369, 371, 379 II:56–59, 63, 69–73, 127, 136–143 (passim), 145, 165, 319 see also “test scores” infra education, other, II:246 electoral factors, I:186, 187, 220 employment, I:28, 100–102, 112 II:134, 165, 391 employment, gender factors, I:27–30 II:54, 55, 61, 63, 65–67, 68–69, 75–76, 80, 81, 82, 100–101, 103, 124–125, 130– 147 (passim) ethnics, I:18 II:44, 387, 390 fertility, I:63–70 (passim), 77, 93 gender factors, I:37–30, 81, 180, 256 II:42, 54, 55, 159, 191–192, 323–327, 336, 337, 361, 363, 378, 382–382, 384–385 health care, II:392–395, 412, 414–421 health insurance, II:280–283, 392–393, 413 health risk factors, II:272–277, 287–290, 314 health status, general, II:259–260, 270, 271, 288, 381, 388 homicide, I:34, 35 II:323–326, 361, 363, 378, 379 hospitalization, Blacks vs Whites, II:284– 285, 393–394, 413, 415–421 household structure, I:25 II:164 housing conditions, I:36–37 hypertension, II:288 immigrants, I:186, 219 see also Europeans immunizations, II:358, 360 income, I:30–31, 32, 111, 114 II:54–55, 164, 229–234 infant mortality, I:32–33, 85, 88–89, 90 II:264, 356–357 infants, fetal alcohol exposure, II:320– 321 infants, iron deficiency, II:314, 315 infants, lead poisoning, II:316 life expectancy, I:81, 86–87 II:259 marriage, I:72, 74–78 (passim), 93, 259 II:133, 164, 293, 401 mathematics achievement, I:25, 349– 350, 351, 353, 355, 356, 358, 359, 360, 365, 366, 367 Medicare, II:281, 392, 413, 416 mental illness, II:381–382 military personnel, II:183, 184, 186 mortality, I:81, 82–83, 85, 86–89, 90, 91–92, 417– 418 II:254, 256, 258, 259, 264, 266, 277, 290, 291, 361, 363, 371–380, 382–383, 384–385, 387, 394, 397 neighborhood segregation, I:37–38, 39, 220–221, 266, 270, 271–272, 273, 283–284, 392–406, 409–419, 425 II:392

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America Becoming: Racial Trends and Their Consequences, Volume I political factors, I:186, 187, 220 population growth and size, I:16, 44, 250, 437, 438 II:42–43 poverty, II:45–46, 54, 55–56, 67, 68–69, 359 prenatal care, II:279 racism and discrimination, Brazil/South Africa compared to U.S., I:13, 302–316 reverse discrimination, I:324, 326, 327–329 U.S., I:6, 9, 13, 244–245, 264–267, 269–295, 322, 324, 326, 327–329, 337, 413, 418–421, 425 II:106–107, 186, 246–247, 389, 390, 391, 400, 420–421 see also “affirmative action” and “crime…” supra reading achievement, I:349–350, 352, 354, 356, 358, 359, 360–362, 366, 368, 369, 370 regional demographics, I:39, 49, 61 rural areas, II:45, 165 smoking, I:33 socioeconomic status, general, I:220–221 II:52–59, 254, 270, 271, 388 South Africa, apartheid, I:13, 288, 303– 304, 306–308, 309–310 suburban areas, I:220–221, 251, 438, 445, 456 II:246 see also “neighborhood segregation” supra suicide, II:335–337, 379–380, 381 teachers attitudes toward, I:13 teenage pregnancy, I:66–67, 68, 77, 93 II:361 television, I:369, 370 test scores, I:25–26, 348–367, 383–387 II:73, 74, 141, 313 urban areas, I:53, 61–62, 218, 219, 220, 250, 251, 456 II:165 see also “neighborhood segregation” supra veterans, health care, I:18 II:393–394, 412, 414–421 wages, I:29, 30 II:54, 60–73, 80, 81, 82, 95, 99–100, 101– 102, 103, 124–125, 129, 138–143, 164, 223 wealth, II:89–94, 95–96, 225–234, 236–247 welfare, II:156–166 (passim), 390 Williams, David R. I:17–18, 484 II:371–410, 446 Wilson, William Julius I:1–20, 472 II:434 Women, see Gender factors Women, Infants, and Children program, II: 315 World Wide Web, see Internet Y Youth Behavior Risk Surveillance System, II:362 Z Zhou, Min I:16–17, 200–242, 484 II:446