that they had the opportunity to advance in their current organization, suggesting that the key to advancement in their mind is movement across organizations.

A multiemployer survey asking what employees expect from the new deal (based on employee surveys inside each company) found that "secure employment" is ranked fifth in importance out of 10 attributes that employees expect from their companies. Interesting work, open communications, and opportunities for development took the top three spots (The Conference Board, 1997). Focus groups conducted by Towers Perrin report that while employers put commitment and trust as the two most important things they want from the new deal, employees want professional development and training, investments that make it possible for them to reduce their dependence on their current employer and become more valuable in the labor market (Milligan, 1996).

There is some evidence from the Towers Perrin survey that employees now seem to have rather positive views about their work situation as opposed to earlier in the 1990s: 79 percent believed that their company had treated them fairly and that they had a sense of personal accomplishment from their work, and 75 percent feel motivated and that they could have an impact on company success. The contrast with much more negative survey results just a few years before no doubt reflects several issues: day-to-day experience in the workplace has changed as growth has replaced downsizing; extensive hiring means that a large percentage of the respondents had little experience with either the restructuring period or the old deal; and people tend to recalibrate their perceptions (Bookbinder, 1996).

Conclusions and Implications

The arguments and evidence presented in this chapter suggest several general conclusions about changes in the structure of work. First, there appears to be much greater diversity in how work, jobs, and occupations are structured. The rise of nonstandard work is perhaps the best example, but there is also greater variety in how tasks are performed (e.g., the amount of teamwork and employee involvement). In part because the structure of organizations has become more fluid and the boundary around



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