collar work. Morgan et al., (1986) identified giving suggestions/criticisms, cooperation, communication, building team spirit/morale, adaptability, coordination, and acceptance of suggestions/criticisms as critical teamwork skills and behaviors. Perhaps the most extensive research on team competencies, however, has been carried out at the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division (Tannenbaum et al., 1992; Cannon-Bowers et al., 1995). It developed a model of team effectiveness (see Figure 4.1) that focuses on the influences of organizational, work, and task characteristics on requirements for both individual task competencies and team competencies. Subsequent work has concentrated on decomposing team and task competencies. There are, as seen in Figure 4.2, four basic types of teamwork competencies: "transportable," "task contingent," "team contingent," and "context-driven." The two categories most relevant to occupational

Figure 4.1

Team effectiveness model: Conceptual framework.

Adapted from Tannenbaum, Beard, and Salas (1992)



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