also asked firms in the civilian sector to classify jobs into the categories defined in the recently released Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT). The goals included providing better training and more systematic ways to transfer labor to needed areas. Social and behavioral scientists who did occupational analysis played key roles in the development of more sophisticated personnel selection, training, and promotion systems in occupations ranging from Air Force pilots to Navy submarine crews. Similarly in the civilian sector, by 1947 an estimated 20 percent of U.S. industrial firms used employment tests for hiring and placement (Jacoby, 1985).

The development of occupational analysis after World War II is interwoven with: (a) the dramatic expansion of higher education, including the number of sociologists and economists specializing in the analysis of occupations and labor markets, and research and practice communities in industrial and organizational psychology, vocational guidance, and employment training; (b) the expansion of survey research activities facilitated by improved sampling and item analysis procedures as well as by the advent of statistical data processing via computers; and (c) the expansion of employers' efforts to systematize hiring, training, promotion, and compensation systems.

Most of the major systems described in this chapter had their origins in this period. That includes the DOT, the Standard Occupational Classification System (SOC), the Occupational and Employment Statistics Classification System (OES), and the Military Occupational Specialties (MOS) system as it is underpinned by the Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Program (CODAP), which was not fully implemented until the 1960s (Mitchell and Driskill, 1996). Beginning in the late 1950s, a number of occupational analysis systems were developed for use in the private sector, many of which built on work completed in the military and government sectors (Fleishman, 1967, 1992; McCormick et al., 1972; McCormick, 1979; Cunningham et al., 1971; Cunningham, 1988).

The SOC has recently undergone revision. The new system will be used by all federal agencies to collect occupational data; it will provide the occupational classification system for the 2000 census; and it will be used for coding jobs in the latest revision of



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