• (McCormick et al., 1969). It has a long history of development and research and its strengths and weaknesses are well known. The questionnaire has 187 items listing work behaviors and job elements at a level of abstraction that permits work to be described across a broad range of occupations.
  • Fleishman Job Analysis System: This system is likewise based on a long history of research, primarily in the area of human ability testing (Fleishman and Quaintance, 1984). A unique contribution of this system was the development of behaviorally anchored rating scales to assist subject-matter experts (job incumbents, supervisors, or other persons knowledgeable about the jobs to be rated) in estimating the amount of each ability required to perform a job or job task (Fleishman, 1992).
  • General Work Inventory: This inventory grew out of the research on the occupational analysis inventory (Cunningham et al., 1990; Cunningham, 1988) and had its origins primarily in occupational education and guidance.
  • Common Metric Questionnaire: This is a more recently developed "worker-oriented" job analysis instrument intended to apply to a broad range of jobs and to overcome some of the perceived inadequacies of earlier systems, particularly the relatively difficult reading level of descriptor items and the relative (as opposed to absolute) nature of the ratings obtained for jobs (Harvey, 1991).
  • Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory-Closed Ended (MOSAIC): This system, recently developed by the Office of Personnel Management, is designed to collect and distribute data about tasks and competencies (combinations of knowledge, skills, and abilities) for occupations within large occupational families (Gregory and Park, 1992).
  • Work Profiling System: This system likewise uses instruments tailored to occupational families rather than a single instrument intended to apply across all jobs in the workforce (Saville and Holdsworth Ltd. USA, Inc., 1990).

Category/Enumerative Systems

This section describes international systems, national systems outside the United States, and major U.S. systems. In the discus-



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