(Dawis and Lofquist, 1984). The MJDQ is a unique values-type measure, in that it describes occupations relative to the needs they reinforce. These include such noncognitive, stylistic reinforcers as authority, creativity, security, and variety. Finally, work styles refers to personality characteristics that are either directly relevant to job performance or that may facilitate development of requisite knowledge and skills. The taxonomy of work styles was drawn from recent efforts to formulate models of adaptive personality characteristics encompassing five to nine factors—the seven first-order constructs in the model are achievement orientation, social influence, interpersonal orientation, adjustment, conscientiousness, independence, and practical intelligence.

Worker Requirements Worker requirements are the skills and knowledge that people develop as a function of education, practice, and experience. Skills are broadly defined as sets of general procedures that underlie the effective acquisition and application of knowledge in various domains of behavior. Thus, skills are viewed as more tractable and less stable than abilities, in that they can be enhanced more quickly through practice, and as more proximal to effective work performance than abilities, in that they are usually more closely associated with particular types or classes of tasks. The general skills and knowledge in the O*NET™ system are thought to be transferable across jobs and thus should play a progressively more important role as organizations seek to develop a workforce capable of adapting to new types of job demands.

Skills are organized into six broad categories likely to be involved in virtually all jobs. The first is basic skills—developed cognitive capacities that allow for learning or knowledge acquisition. Basic skills are divided into content skills, such as reading, listening, oral and written communication, and declarative knowledge, such as mathematical procedures, and process skills, such as critical thinking, learning strategies, and application of principles. The remaining five categories are termed cross-functional skills, skills that facilitate performance across a variety of settings. They include problem solving, social skills, technological skills, system skills, and resource management skills. In addition to basic and cross-functional skills, the occupation-specific



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