BOX 1.1 Definition of Terms Used in the Report

Work: human activity that is goal directed, purposive, or instrumental and creates value to society. The processes by which humans transform resources into outputs.

Work structures: patterns of work activity that are multiply determined by social, economic, political, technological, and cultural processes.

Work and works structures are manifested in:

Position: a single individual performing a particular set of work activities in a particular location.

Job: a collection of individual positions having common work activities in a specific employment relationship.

Occupation: a collection of individual jobs having similar work activities.

Occupational structure = occupational category system: an organization of occupations into categories for some purpose, including labels and connections or relationships between labels.

Occupational analysis: the tools and methods used describe and label work, positions jobs, and occupations.

Occupational classification—has two general meanings: (a) the act of classifying positions, jobs, or occupations into an existing occupational category system and (b) the set of occupational categories in an occupational category system.

come outdated. The Dictionary of Occupational Titles of the U.S. Department of Labor (Spenner, 1979, 1983; Steinberg, 1990, 1992) makes far more elaborate and accurate distinctions among blue-collar than among white-collar occupations (National Research Council, 1980), although only 25 percent of today's workforce is employed in blue-collar jobs, a percentage that is falling (Silvestri, 1997).

Furthermore, because occupational analysis systems are backward-looking and tend to emphasize skills and attributes that are valued by the culture at the time they are developed, they not only fail to assess attributes of work that may eventually prove to



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