presence of women in the Army. It should be noted, however, that the Army's workforce is younger and includes a smaller proportion of women than the civilian workforce.

Sociodemographic Trends

Certain sociodemographic trends in the general population are also expected to affect the Army in ways that are similar to the anticipated impact on civilian employers. Of all the changes that the American family has undergone in recent decades, the Army's personnel planners are perhaps most concerned about the growth of two-income couples, who are expected to represent three-quarters of all married couples by the year 2000. This particular trend has been accompanied by a more equitable sharing of parental responsibilities between men and women—which, along with certain demographic changes, has forced all employers to take greater interest in developing responsive workplace policies and a more family-friendly working environment. More civilian employers are thus implementing flexible work schedules and job-sharing plans, offering expanding opportunities for people to work at home, placing greater emphasis on participatory management, and introducing new compensation packages tailored to the needs of individual workers and their families.

It is clearly more difficult for the Army to create a responsive workplace environment than it is for many civilian employers, given its mission and its corresponding demands on people for their time, availability for deployment, geographic mobility, periodic separations and possible isolation from family, foreign residence, and related obligations of service life. Indeed, both the Army and the family have been called "greedy" institutions, in the sense that each places a great (and often conflicting) demand on the individual for his or her commitment, loyalty, time, and energy (Moskos and Wood, 1988). Yet if the Army is to survive as an all-volunteer organization in a changing demographic landscape, it may have to adapt in a way that can keep step with the movement toward family-friendly work settings.

Recruit quality is another concern of U.S. military manpower planners: that is, whether tomorrow's recruits will have the necessary abilities to perform certain complex tasks in a high-tech



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