are underrepresented only in tactical operations and as general officers—and by a very wide margin.

The reasons for such disparities between the participation of men and women in Army occupational areas can be attributed to legal and policy restrictions on women in combat, tradition, and personal choice. On the matter of personal choice, previous research suggests that women who join the military tend to prefer jobs that are traditionally associated with women (Binkin and Eitelberg, 1986). One factor to keep in mind here is that women, although underrepresented in many areas (based on overall levels of participation) are not unrepresented. As Table 6.4 indicates,

TABLE 6.4

Number and Percentage of Military Occupations with 10 or More Personnel That Have No Women, by Service and Officer/Enlisted Status, 1996

Service

Officer

Enlisted

Total

Army

 

 

 

All occupations

188

250

438

No women

19

35

54

Percent

10.2

14.0

12.4

Navy

 

 

 

All occupations

526

999

1,525

No women

104

263

367

Percent

19.8

26.4

24.1

Marine Corps

 

 

 

All occupations

123

316

439

No women

49

64

113

Percent

39.9

20.3

25.8

Air Force

 

 

 

All occupations

257

243

500

No women

29

17

46

Percent

11.3

7.0

9.2

Total

 

 

 

All occupations

1,094

1,808

2,902

No women

201

379

580

Percent

18.4

21.0

20.0

 

SOURCE: Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services, Utilization of Women Indicator Report (Monterey, CA: Defense Manpower Data Center/Naval Postgraduate School, 30 September 1996), p. 53.



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