ability to rapidly project power or provide assistance anywhere in the world on a moment's notice (Reimer, 1997a, 1997b; Paige, 1996a). Four formal vision statements explain, in general terms, how the armed forces (especially the Army) expect to implement the new military strategies: The Joint Vision 2010, Concept For Future Joint Operations , and Army Vision 2010 documents describe expected requirements for joint operations and Army operations through the year 2010, which is the long-term planning milestone for the military. The Army After Next project description identifies Army requirements projected for the very long-term, from 2010 through 2025.

Technological Change

Some of the changes in work in the military parallel changes in the civilian sector that result from advances in technology. In both sectors, technology has reduced the number of blue-collar jobs and increased the number of technical and professional jobs. In addition, many jobs in the Army are increasing in scope to include the new technologies. And in some cases, because of shared technology, there is sharing of skills across jobs. This has implications for how work is classified and the training programs that are needed.

Changes in technology interact with other factors, such as: (1) resources (e.g., changing budgets can drive technology and vice versa); (2) political change (e.g., the collapse of the Soviet Union, both affected by technology and producing implications for technological needs); and (3) change in doctrine (e.g., moving from cold war static strategic defense doctrine to one of active defense, which can be facilitated by technology as well as drive it). Moderated by these factors, technology can have implications that reverberate throughout the Army's organizational structure and the content of its work. Although change is a constant in organizations that, like the Army, must adapt to environmental conditions at many levels, technology may accelerate the rate of change, affecting an Army-wide "system of systems" that includes such things as manpower, equipment, training, provisioning, maintenance, evaluation, and doctrine. Box 6.1 provides an example of advances in tank technology.



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