garding personnel considerations into the technology development cycle (analysis of requirements, specification, design, testing, and fielding) of newly acquired technological systems. The six areas covered by MANPRINT are: human factors engineering, manpower, personnel, training, health hazards, and system safety. The MANPRINT program applies the following principles for technological procurement (Booher, 1990):


    User requirements are defined and included in product requirements documents.


    People considerations are provided in primary decision-making trade-off models.


    Source selection evaluations weight people factors heavily.


    Human performance requirements are included in test plans, and tests are conducted with users defined as part of the system.


    Knowledge, skills, and abilities represented by all human factors disciplines (including organizational analysis and classification) are fully utilized.


    Capabilities and limitations of users (including operators and maintainers) are taken into account during the definition of product requirements and specifications.

    Organizational Change

    As for many organizations in the civilian sector, downsizing has significantly affected the Army's work—in the past decade, the active Army has been reduced by 275,000 (36 percent reduction), the Army National Guard by 84,000 (18 percent reduction), the Army Reserve by 89,000 (28 percent reduction), and the civilian workforce by 135,000 (33 percent reduction). Figure 6.2 shows the progression in the Army's planned downsizing from 1989 to 1997.

    The active Army provides a forward presence and an initial rapid response to emergencies; the Reserves and the National Guard provide a pool of trained individuals for active duty in time of war or other emergencies that can act as reinforcements for contingency operations. In today's environment, the two reserve components are being exercised and deployed to a greater

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