now a need to combine combat troops with Army Reserve negotiators and civilian technicians to perform humanitarian and peacekeeping missions. As a result, there is an increasing requirement for communication and coordination, both of which may involve some increase in the emotional labor component of the work. Also, because of the large number of potential threats around the world, there is a need to rapidly deploy teams of people who have not had the opportunity to develop cohesive relationships.

With fewer personnel, individual soldiers may need a broader range of skills than in the past, or they may have to work with a more diverse group of individuals from various parts of the military. The work structure must be flexible enough to adapt to these changes and must facilitate a rapid response to a wide variety of situations. According to Sellman (1995:10):

We can no longer afford the luxury of occupational specialization. Personnel again will be trained in broad skills and knowledge that are necessary to perform a wide variety of job activities, rather than just those skills and knowledge needed to perform a small set of tasks. Obviously, such a change in training philosophy will have major implications for occupational analysis.

The central question is: Do the current structures and the analysis tools used to design jobs and training programs support the present and future needs of the Army?

Occupational Classification in the Army

The personnel of the active Army, the Army National Guard, and the Army Reserves are all classified and managed according to a common set of occupational categories. All soldiers in the Army are assigned to and trained in one of the combat, combat support, or combat service support branches, depending on the functions they will perform either in combat or in support of combat.

The occupational structure that is used to classify soldiers is hierarchical. The enlisted force is divided into 31 career management fields that relate to the Army's branches (Box 6.2). Each career management field, such as infantry, special forces, and



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