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transportation, includes a series of military occupational specialties (MOSs).
There are approximately 350 MOSs. Every MOS has a promotion structure and a description of the tasks, skill qualifications, training and time in rank requirements associated with every enlisted rank. Enlisted personnel are assigned to an MOS when they enter the Army. Assignment is based on both mental and physical performance standards and on position availability. Mental abilities are measured by the Armed Forces Vocational Aptitude Test Battery (ASVAB). Different MOSs have different standards for assignment. Currently, over 95 percent of recruits are high school graduates and have ASVAB scores in the upper 50 percent. There is no lateral entry for enlisted soldiers. Essentially, the Army recruits potential and provides the training necessary for the individual to perform his or her job assignments. That is, recruits come with aptitudes and the basic capacity to learn the needed skills; the Army does not look for individuals who already possess such skills.
As a trainee enters the infantry, he is assigned to one of four career paths—infantryman, indirect fire infantryman, heavy artillery / armor infantryman, or fighting vehicle infantryman. The levels represent steps in a career progression (from private/specialist to sergeant, to staff sergeant, and so on). At each level there are specific requirements for training, skill level, and time in service.
Approximately 80 percent of enlisted soldiers stay within the same MOS throughout their Army career. In some fields, however, there are specified points at which a soldier may cross from one MOS to another. Also, personnel may transfer out of a combat arms MOS later in their careers. The system is based on the premise that enlisted soldiers who choose an Army career and move up through the ranks need the training and experience provided at the lower levels of the specialty in order to have sufficient knowledge to take on each higher level of tasks. Although there may be MOSs with overlap in tasks or skills, there is no easy way to efficiently make these links using the current system.
New MOSs may be added and existing ones can be modified on a yearly cycle. A given MOS can be combined with other MOSs or eliminated entirely as a function of new mission requirements