geared toward rapid response and tailored personnel and equipment mixes. On the other hand, nonstandard operations—particularly operations other than war that require less "warrior" and more "warrior-diplomat" skills—may become the norm for the future Army. The Force XXI Operations document (1994) identifies Army battlefield requirements through the year 2010 and suggests that the smaller force will have fewer individual specialties for both officers and enlisted soldiers, and individual soldiers will be trained for a wider variety of missions. That would argue for a thorough reconsideration of the existing work structure in light of the requirements for these nonstandard missions.

As discussed in previous chapters, changes in technology and organizational context have contributed to two challenges that face occupational analysts in the civilian sector: the need to define and respond to the higher skill requirements of jobs, and to the blurring of distinctions between jobs. These two challenges are also salient for the Army.

Higher Skill Requirements (Upskilling)

The mix of Army jobs in the post-World War II period shows a shift from blue-collar to white-collar jobs, reflecting the move away from work requiring general military skills toward that requiring special skills (Binkin, 1994). The most conspicuous change has been the increase in electronics-related occupations. It should be noted, too, that the growth in the proportion of technical jobs has been accompanied by an increase in the technical complexity of specific jobs. These trends are closely parallel to those in the civilian sector. As the armed services draw down their forces, the requirements for bright, technologically literate personnel are not likely to diminish proportionately. It is more likely that the requisite personnel qualifications in the leaner military of the future will grow commensurate with the sophistication of the systems that are fielded.

Paige described the skills associated with using and maintaining sophisticated equipment as follows (1996b:5):

Let me give you a vivid example of our world of changing technology. Today 82 percent of what (a particular person) maintains is computer controlled. He averages 100 hours of training a year. His



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