linked and structured to provide the most timely information directly to soldiers so that they can exercise their full potential for initiative and action within the overall intent of the commanders.

In any case, the military assumes that, in the future, warfare will require adjustments to organizational structures that take advantage of, and may even be organized around, the processes and systems for information processing and distribution (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1997; Force XXI Operations, 1994). Such changes may include changes in the nature of command authority (e.g., authority corresponding to possession of knowledge—and therefore changeable—rather than purely on the basis of rank), are likely to diffuse authority, and will change the dynamics of leader-to-led in ways that are yet to be fully explored and exploited (Force XXI Operations, 1994).

Such explorations are likely to benefit from investigation of new work structures being developed in association with the concept of computer-supported cooperative work, in which teams work together using common information-processing and distribution systems, while individual tasks are allocated dynamically based on overall team actions, performance, and requirements (National Research Council, 1998). Army work structures in the future are likely to benefit from inclusion of detailed descriptors for team tasks and knowledge, skills, and abilities.

Developing an Effective Occupational Information System

In 1965, the Army recognized the need to make use of occupational analysis methodology for creating, revising, and merging occupational specialties. The first effort in this direction was the development of the Military Occupational Data Bank, which later evolved into the Army Occupational Analysis Survey. In 1972, the Army abandoned these systems for the Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Program (CODAP), developed by the Air Force.

CODAP is based on the assumption that occupational analysis begins by defining all jobs of interest down to the task performance level. In this approach, the list of specific job tasks is the primary anchor for job data; this list can be augmented or modified by other factors, such as equipment used. Once the task list



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement