that research that examines a full range of forces, choices, and consequences is still in an early developmental stage. Most of the evidence to date comes from a rather narrow range of industries and lower-level occupations. Strengthening the understanding of these issues and the confidence of the direction and magnitudes of these effects across a broader range of occupations and industries is an important priority for future research.

The End of Jobs?

Nothing in the data we have examined would support the conclusion that all the changes in today's workplace add up to "the end of jobs" in any sense of this term. The conditions and content of work are certainly changing in sometimes dramatic ways, but the vast majority of people in America who want or need to work remain employed. Employment, labor force participation rates, and hours of work have either increased or remained stable in recent years. There is no compelling evidence to suggest that this will change in the future. Moreover, the history of technology repeatedly shows that, even when large numbers of individual workers are driven from particular jobs as a result of a shift in the demand for labor, aggregate demand for workers does not decline because of technical change.

Although claims about the end of work can be dismissed as hyperbole, the various voices debating this issue may signal a deeper phenomenon. Their concerns may be a symptom of the general perception that we are in the midst of a third industrial revolution driven by a change in technical infrastructure associated with digitization. Historians will eventually decide whether or not the changes in work opened up by digital technologies warrant the label of an industrial revolution, but the evidence that we have summarized is sufficient to suggest that microelectronic technologies are having profound effects on work and occupational structures. Their full effects are felt when they are combined with changes in organizational strategies and employment practices. The potential magnitude and importance of these changes make it essential that occupational analysis systems be both comprehensive and flexible enough to track these changes and provide decision makers with the information they need to



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