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test, sort," and "navigate a ship." If still further differentiation is needed, then a list of 11 specific skills are used (e.g., quantitative skills defined as activities in which it is important to perform calculations; serviceability defined as activities in which it is important to render service to other people). These concepts are similar to the "generalized work activities" and "basic and cross-functional skills" included in the Occupational Information Network (O*NET™), the Department of Labor's replacement for the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. In operation, the five skill levels crossed with the 13 major skill specializations produce 43 occupational "classes."1 With the invocation of minor skill specializations, 121 occupational groups are formed, and with the addition of the 128 "main tasks" criteria, 1,211 occupations are formed.
The United Kingdom replaced two earlier classification systems, the Classification of Occupations and Dictionary of Occupational Titles (CODOT) and the 1980 version of the Classification of Occupations (CO80) with its Standard Occupational Classification. This effort was coincident with the revision of ISCO-68, so an effort was made "to achieve the closest feasible harmonization" between the British SOC and ISCO-88 (White, 1993). Beginning with the 350 entities in the 1980 Classification of Occupations, modifications were made to fit with ISCO classification criteria. These new code groups were tried out against data from the 1981 census of population and a sample of job vacancies sent to job centers. The resulting structure had 9 major groups, 22 submajor groups, 77 minor groups, and 371 occupational unit groups.
Canada replaced its Canadian Classification and Dictionary
Not 65, as might be expected, since some of the possible cells are not used because of inadequate sample sizes for purposes of statistical reporting. A lower bound of 5,000 job incumbents in the population was set for inclusion of an occupation.