reviewers, including its advanced reading level (a college graduate reading level is required, according to Ash and Edgell, 1975), its content geared too heavily toward manufacturing occupations for an instrument that purports to apply to all jobs (DeNisi et al., 1987), and results that are too general in nature to specify the type of work actually done in a job.

In response to the criticism that the PAQ is too heavily weighted toward blue-collar occupations, in 1986 the PAQ's authors introduced a second worker-oriented instrument called the Professional and Managerial Position Questionnaire (PMPQ). Designed for analysis of managerial, scientific, technical, and staff jobs, the PMPQ consists of 98 items assessing 6 job functions (planning/scheduling, processing of information and ideas, exercising judgment, communicating, interpersonal activities and relationships, and technical activities), personal requirements (e.g., education and training required), and other information (e.g., personnel supervised). As with the PAQ, computerized scoring services and normative data are also available for the PMPQ.

Fleishman Job Analysis System

The Fleishman Job Analysis System (FJAS) is based on extensive experimental and factor analytic research on the nature of human abilities (Fleishman and Quaintance, 1984). Conducted over a 40-year period, this research program consisted of a wide variety of laboratory tasks designed to elicit performance from subjects drawing on one or more hypothesized underlying abilities. Task batteries were systematically varied to hone in on specific abilities and to delineate the boundaries of their application. Thus, the research linked task characteristics to ability requirements to produce the Fleishman Taxonomy of Human Abilities. The Fleishman taxonomy provides detailed descriptions of 52 abilities, including cognitive (e.g., oral comprehension, number facility), physical (e.g., explosive strength, arm-hand steadiness), psychomotor (e.g., rate control, reaction time), and sensory-perceptual (e.g., depth perception, speech recognition) domains. Nine social-interactive abilities (e.g., persuasion, persistence) and 13 job skills and knowledge (e.g., mechanical knowledge, driving) are the most recent additions (Fleishman, 1992).

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