supporting human resource applications requiring relatively abstract (e.g., job classification) or specific (e.g., job descriptions) information.

The CMQ is a recent product, and there does not yet exist a substantial professional literature concerning its usage. The goals that Harvey set for the CMQ, however, particularly concerning ease of use and comparability of data across disparate jobs, are laudable and potentially fill a gap among worker-oriented job analysis instruments that preceded it.

Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory-Closed Ended

Developed by the Office of Personnel Management, the purpose of the Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory-Closed Ended (MOSAIC) is to collect data on a number of occupational descriptors in a standardized manner across occupations within large occupational families, and then to provide that information in readily accessible electronic databases. MOSAIC has been described as follows: "This system uses an automated occupational analysis approach that eliminates costly redundancies in the collection of data and provides technically sound and legally defensible procedures and documentation to support human resource management (HRM) decisions" (Gregory and Park, 1992:ii).

The report by Gregory and Park illustrates the use of MOSAIC. The occupation focus of the research project was executives, managers, and supervisors. A standard questionnaire was developed and administered to a stratified random, sample of over 20,000 federal executives, managers, and supervisors. The questionnaire contained a diverse set of items, or job descriptors, including: 151 job tasks rated in terms of importance for effective job performance; 22 competencies (a human quality or characteristic associated with the performance of managerial tasks, e.g., knowledge, skill, ability, trait, motive, or self-concept) rated in terms of importance, and needed proficiency at entry; and personal and organizational styles. Data were presented showing the percentage of respondents of various occupational types indicating they performed tasks, found competencies needed at en-



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