industrial and organizational psychology. Prior to joining AIR, he was vice-president of the Personnel Decisions Research Institute. He is a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the American Psychological Association, and the American Psychological Society. He has conducted research for a variety of public- and private-sector sponsors in a number of applied areas, including occupational analysis, development and validation of measures of individual differences, employee selection and classification systems, and the prediction of human performance in occupational and training settings.

LYMAN W. PORTER is professor of management in the Graduate School of Management at the University of California, Irvine, and was formerly dean of that school. Previously he served on the faculty of the University of California, Berkeley. Currently, he serves as a member of the academic advisory board of the Czechoslovak Management Center, a member of the board of trustees of the American University of Armenia, and was formerly an external examiner for the National University of Singapore. He is a past president of the Academy of Management and has received both its Scholarly Contributions to Management Award and its Distinguished Management Educator Award. He has also served as president of the Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychology, and in 1989 received its Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award. His major fields of interest are organizational psychology, management, and management education and has written extensively in these fields. His 1988 book (with Lawrence McKibbin), Management Education and Development, reported the findings of a nationwide study of business school education and post-degree management development.

KENNETH I. SPENNER is professor and chair of the Department of Sociology at Duke University. He has a bachelors degree from Creighton University, a masters degree from the University of Notre Dame, and a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. His research interests include work and personality, occupations, career dynamics, technology, and the sociology of organizations and markets. His major current research project is a multiyear panel study of organizational adap-



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