Index

A

African Americans, 43, 45, 62-65, 66

military personnel, 222-223, 230-232

Age factors

education and training, 96

elderly persons, 42, 66, 77-79

gender factors and, 43, 44, 225

job stability and security, 77-79, 88, 89

military personnel, 8, 223, 224, 225, 281

minority groups, 42-43

professional and technical workers, 148-149

workforce trends, general, 41, 42-44, 63, 66

Agricultural workers, 59-60, 61, 105, 264

American Management Association, 74, 75, 98, 101

American Society for Training Developers, 95

Anthropological approach 10, 21, 23-24, 25, 48, 286

AP*NET, see Army Personnel Network

Apprentices and trainees, 179, 188

Aptitudes, 173, 182, 184, 245

attitudes toward work, 57

General Aptitude Test Battery, 337

military personnel, 240, 245

O*NET™ 184, 185, 186, 327

see also Skills

Armed Forces Qualification Test, 226

Armed Forces Vocational Aptitude Text Battery, 245

Army, see Military personnel

Army After Next, 237

Army Occupational Analysis Survey, 256

Army Personnel Network (AP*NET), 9, 259, 261, 262, 284-285

Army Vision 2010, 237, 259

AT&T, 74

Attitudes and beliefs

clerical workers, 52-55

compensation, 50-51, 52-53, 56, 57

decision-making role and, 52-53, 84-85, 106

downsizing, 75-76, 77, 100, 270

gender factors, 50-51

managers, 51, 52-55

meaning of work, 49-57, 97, 274

occupational groupings, 106



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Index A African Americans, 43, 45, 62-65, 66 military personnel, 222-223, 230-232 Age factors education and training, 96 elderly persons, 42, 66, 77-79 gender factors and, 43, 44, 225 job stability and security, 77-79, 88, 89 military personnel, 8, 223, 224, 225, 281 minority groups, 42-43 professional and technical workers, 148-149 workforce trends, general, 41, 42-44, 63, 66 Agricultural workers, 59-60, 61, 105, 264 American Management Association, 74, 75, 98, 101 American Society for Training Developers, 95 Anthropological approach 10, 21, 23-24, 25, 48, 286 AP*NET, see Army Personnel Network Apprentices and trainees, 179, 188 Aptitudes, 173, 182, 184, 245 attitudes toward work, 57 General Aptitude Test Battery, 337 military personnel, 240, 245 O*NET™ 184, 185, 186, 327 see also Skills Armed Forces Qualification Test, 226 Armed Forces Vocational Aptitude Text Battery, 245 Army, see Military personnel Army After Next, 237 Army Occupational Analysis Survey, 256 Army Personnel Network (AP*NET), 9, 259, 261, 262, 284-285 Army Vision 2010, 237, 259 AT&T, 74 Attitudes and beliefs clerical workers, 52-55 compensation, 50-51, 52-53, 56, 57 decision-making role and, 52-53, 84-85, 106 downsizing, 75-76, 77, 100, 270 gender factors, 50-51 managers, 51, 52-55 meaning of work, 49-57, 97, 274 occupational groupings, 106

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professional and technical workers, 51, 52-55 service workers, 52-55 skills and, 52-55, 57 social-psychological contracts, 97-102, 103 training/development opportunities and, 54-55 unskilled workers, 51, 52-55 Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, 174, 175, 330-331 Automation, 39, 125, 150 blue-collar workers, 116, 150 military personnel, 253-254, 260, 261, 262 service workers, 121-122, 125-126, 127 see also Computer applications B Beliefs, see Attitudes and beliefs Black persons, see African Americans Blue-collar workers, 21, 28, 41, 105, 108-121, 266, 335 automation, 116, 150 blue-collar/managerial divide, 10, 103, 108-110, 113, 114-116, 120, 160, 265, 272, 283, 285-286 cognitive skills, 110, 112, 113, 115-116, 120, 160 problem solving, 112, 114 computer use, 113-117, 120, 160 content analysis, 110-113 defined, 108 emotional work, 121 globalization of markets, 117-119 historical perspectives, 41, 108, 117-119, 159, 264, 265 interpersonal skills, 108, 109, 110, 113, 115, 121, 160 see also "teamwork" infra military, 237, 252 occupational classification systems, 111-112, 159-160 organizational factors, 109-113, 117-121 see also "blue/collar managerial divide" supra quality control, 110, 112-113, 117, 118, 119, 120 skills, 113-115, 160 see also "interpersonal skills" supra team skills, 84, 85, 110-113, 114, 115-119 task analysis, 109, 111-112, 160 teamwork, 84, 85, 110-113, 114, 115-121 technological innovation, 113-117 Bureau of Census, 21, 39, 42, 43, 44, 45, 48, 85, 167 Classified Index of Occupations and Industries, 176, 177, 178 CPS, 39, 42, 48, 59, 62, 68, 87-89, 93, 177, 190, 196 SOC, use of, 178 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 59, 60-61, 95, 96, 105, 190, 261 Occupational and Employment Statistics Classification System, 168, 190, 96 Occupational Employment Statistics, 176, 177, 178, 196 C Canadian Classification and Dictionary of Occupations, 174, 175, 332-333 Career ladders/stages, 97, 188, 234-235 managerial jobs, 81 military, 234-235, 245, 249, 262 technical workers, 153-154 Career pattern changes, 14, 86-87, 90, 204, 210-211 military, 70-71, 210-211, 234-235, 245 Census Bureau, see Bureau of Census

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Classification systems, see Occupational classification systems; specific occupational categories Classified Index of Occupations and Industries, 176, 177 Clerical workers, 121, 124, 125-126, 150, 160 attitudes toward work, 52-55 proportion of workforce, trends, 59-62 (passim) Cognitive skills, 10, 20, 24, 71, 106, 107, 172, 272-273 blue-collar workers, 110, 112, 113, 115-116, 120, 160 managerial workers, 136, 140 O*NET™ 186, 199, 322, 324 professional and technical workers, 154-156, 158 service workers, 121, 127, 128 see also Content analysis; Problem solving; Skills; Task analysis Combat activities, 219, 227, 229, 230, 239, 241, 244, 245, 246, 247, 251-254 Common Metric Questionnaire, 172, 173, 338-339 Communication, interpersonal, see Interpersonal skills and work Compensation, 2, 67-69, 172, 267 attitudes toward work, 50-51, 52-53, 56, 57 computer use and, 39 educational attainment and, 67 global competition, 31, 32, 266 historical trends, 50-51, 52-53, 56, 57, 67-69, 70, 71 inequality, 67-69, 72, 93, 218, 253 military personnel, 218, 222, 226-227, 253 nonstandard employment, 93 service workers, 122, 125 skills and, 67-68, 106 social-psychological contracts, 99 Comprehensive Occupational Data Analysis Program, 168, 256-257 Computer applications, 16, 36 AP*NET, 9, 259, 261, 262, 284-285 blue-collar workers, 113-117, 120, 160 digitization, 36-40, 267-268 managerial work, 134, 135 military personnel, 252-254, 255, 256, 258-259 national databases, 10-11, 159, 286, 287, 339 see also Occupational Information Network (O*NET™) occupational analysis, general, 168 professional and technical workers, 142, 149, 150 service workers, 125, 127, 128, 131-133 skills, general, 37-40, 67 training, vii, 95-96, 239 Work Profiling System, 172, 173, 340 see also Internet Concept For Future Joint Operations, 237 Content analysis, 3, 14-15, 27, 28, 105-163 (passim), 271-273, 277-278, 338-339 blue-collar workers, 110-113 demographic factors, 41 managerial workers, 128, 161-162 national database on work, 10-11 O*NET™ 6, 11, 184-186, 203, 279, 322 product cycle time and, 33, 266 professional and technical workers, 150, 154-157, 158, 161 service workers, 121-123, 128-132, 160 shareholder clout and, 34-35 see also Skills; Task analysis Contracts of employment, 25, 31, 200, 203

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Contract work and workers, 75, 87, 91-94 (passim), 152, 278 training, 96 see also Self-employed persons Counseling, 1, 11, 164 Cultural factors, 22-23 anthropological studies, 10, 21, 23-24, 25, 48, 286 corporate culture, 97, 136-137, 138-139 military personnel, 219-220, 251, 260 Current Population Survey (CPS), 39, 42, 48, 59, 62, 68, 87-89, 93, 177, 190, 196 D Decision-making, viii, 1, 2, 3, 6, 11, 14, 18-19, 106, 107, 172, 277, 287 attitudes toward work and, 52-53, 84-85, 106 blue-collar/managerial divide, 10, 103, 108-110, 113, 114-116, 120, 160, 265, 272, 283, 285-286 career selection, 14 see also Counseling individual, 164 ISCO, 174 military personnel, 8, 240, 251, 253-254, 260 organization-level, 73, 263-264, 276 service workers, 121-122, 128 see also Managers and management; Selection and placement Demand, see Supply and demand Demographic factors, 2, 3, 4, 10, 15, 16, 28, 40-49, 57, 285 content analysis, 41 historical trends, 28, 41, 42-49, 59-67, 71-72, 265-266 age factors, workforce trends, 41, 42-44, 63, 66 blue-collar workers, 41, 108, 117-119, 159, 264, 265 change across occupations, 59-62 change within occupations, 62-67, 263 clerical workers, workforce trends, 59-62 (passim) gender factors in workforce, general, 16, 28, 41-49 (passim), 63-66, 70 managerial work, 42-43, 52-53, 59-62, 64-65, 81-82 military personnel, 8, 216, 222-235 professional workers, trends, 51, 52-55, 59-62 (passim) service workers, trends, 59-62 (passim), 121, 130 unskilled workers, 59-62 (passim) occupational classification systems, 41, 42, 67, 69-70 organizational factors, 40-41 professional and technical workers, 51, 52-55, 59-62 (passim), 148-149 service sector, 59-62 (passim), 121, 130 teamwork, 42-43, 120 worklife duration, 45-49, 218 see also Age factors; Educational attainment; Family factors; Gender factors; Immigrants; Minority groups Department of Labor Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 7, 22, 23, 167, 168-169, 181-183, 264, 332 O*NET™ 6, 178, 206, 209 regulatory programs, 18 see also Bureau of Labor Statistics Deregulation, 31, 34 Development Dimensions International, 85

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Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 7, 22, 23, 167, 168-169, 181-183, 264, 332 O*NET™ 7, 186, 190, 191, 197, 203, 209, 210, 280, 321 task analysis, 181, 182, 183 see also Occupational Information Network Digitization, 36-40, 267-268 see also Computer applications Dimensions of work, 40, 105-163 Dislocation Worker Surveys, 82 Downsizing, 34-35, 73, 74-81, 151, 267, 269-270 attitudes and beliefs, 75-76, 77, 100, 270 globalization and, 17, 32 managers, 75, 103, 269 military, 8, 221-222, 240, 249, 283 social-psychological contracts, 99-100 E Earnings, see Compensation Economic factors, 24-25 mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, 34, 86, 87 military personnel, socioeconomic status, 226-227 small and medium-sized businesses, 74, 121, 122, 126, 131, 214 see also Compensation; Globalization of markets; Market forces Educational attainment, 3, 16, 45, 63-65 military personnel, 223, 226 O*NET™ 184-185, 186, 188, 323 service workers, 122, 132 wages and salaries, 67 Education and training, 1, 24, 64-65, 66, 95-97, 168, 170, 173, 331 apprentices and trainees, 179, 188 attitudes toward work, 54-55 computer applications, vii, 95-96, 239 gender factors, 96 historical perspectives, 95, 96-97 managers, 54, 95 military personnel, vii, 2, 9, 210, 217, 237, 239-240, 242-243, 245, 252-253, 254, 258, 260, 262 professional networking, 90-91 service workers, 125, 128-130 teamwork, cross-training, 84 technological innovation, 95 see also Knowledge factors; Skills Elderly persons, 42, 66, 77-79 Electronic Performance Support Systems, 96 Emotional work, 106, 108, 121, 122, 137-138, 199, 201, 244, 251, 273, 277, 282 blue-collar workers, 121 gender factors, 201 managerial workers, 138 military personnel, 251 professional workers, 156-157, 158, 161 service workers, 122 Employee development, 95-97, 168 attitudes toward work, 54-55 see also Counseling; Education and training Employment, nonstandard, 31, 58, 91-94, 102-103 compensation, 93 home work, 26, 27, 48, 71-72 self-employed persons, 91, 94, 146, 207 telecommuters, 13, 48 volunteer work, 26, 178 Enumerative systems, 169-171, 173-174, 197, 329-333 Environmental factors, vii, 2, 27, 30-72, 164, 170, 264-273 military personnel, 222-243

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O*NET™ 185-186, 279, 280, 324 see also Demographic factors; Economic factors; Market forces; Organizational factors; Technological factors Ethnography, see Anthropological approach F Fair Labor Standards Act, 108 Families of jobs, see Job families Family and Medical Leave Act, 18 Family factors, 8, 16, 17, 18, 28 family-operated enterprises, 179 military personnel, 220, 225, 281 networking, 89-90 Farm workers, see Agricultural workers Federal government occupational classification/analysis systems, not SOC, 167 see also Army Personnel Network (AP*NET); Occupational Information Network (O*NET™) SOC, 7, 168-169, 174, 176, 177-181, 333 see also specific departments and agencies; terms beginning "Military . . ." Fertility, 43 Financial markets, 33-35, 267 Fleishman Job Analysis System, 172, 173, 186, 335-336 Force XXI Operations, 251, 252, 255-256 Foreign countries, see International perspectives G Gender factors, 3 age factors and, 43, 44, 225 attitudes toward work, 50-51 education and training, 96 emotional work, 201 historical perspectives, 16, 28, 41-49 (passim), 63-66, 70 military personnel, 8, 223, 224-225, 227-230, 281 nonstandard employment, 91 occupational classification systems, 61-62 service workers, 121, 133 unpaid work, 26 workforce, general, 16, 28, 41-49 (passim), 63-66, 70 worklife expectancy, 45-47 work timing, 57 General Accounting Office, 85 General Aptitude Text Battery, 327 General Social Survey, 49-51, 56-57 General Work Inventory, 172, 173, 337-338 Germany, 39 Globalization of markets, 16-17, 31, 71, 266-267 blue-collar workers, 117-119 compensation, 31, 32, 266 downsizing and, 17, 32 financial markets, 34, 35-36 foreign direct investment, 32, 118 organizational factors, 32, 35 technological factors, 31, 32-33 Group performance, see Team skills; Teamwork H Handbook for Analyzing Jobs, 182 High-performance work systems, 109-110, 130, 189, 264, 272, 274, 278 Hiring, see Recruitment, military; Selection and placement Hispanics, 43, 45, 64-66 military personnel, 223, 230-232 Hours of work, 4, 47-49, 56, 58, 275 part-time employment, 57-58, 92, 93

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shift work, 57-59 temporary employment, 20, 75, 92-93, 94 Human Performance Practices survey, 95 I Immigrants, 3 networking, 89-90 Index of Industries and Occupations, 177 Individual performance, vii, 23, 111, 164 military personnel, 224, 225-226, 240 social-psychological contracts, 99 Industrial relations, 10, 11, 16, 18, 23-24, 25, 86-102, 107-108, 270-271, 278, 286 managerial workers, 139 social-psychological contracts, 97-102, 103 trade unions, 31, 32, 67, 90, 99 see also Job security and stability Information technology, see Computer applications; Digitization; Technological factors Interdisciplinary approaches, see Multidisciplinary approaches; Teamwork International perspectives Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, 174, 175, 330-331 Canadian Classification and Dictionary of Occupations, 174, 175, 332-333 foreign direct investment, 32, 118 ISCO, 174-176, 179, 329-330, 332 military joint operations, 8, 237, 250, 281 mission change, 4, 8, 9, 18-19, 29, 217, 235-237, 244, 245, 247, 248, 252, 260, 282-283, 284 Netherlands Standard Classification of Occupations, 174, 175, 331-332 occupational classification systems, other than ISCO, 169, 173 see also Globalization of markets International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), 174-176, 179, 329-330, 332 Internet, 16, 37, 127, 205, 209-211, 217, 250, 259 Interpersonal skills and work, ix, 8, 29, 71, 106, 107, 172, 273, 335 blue-collar workers, 108, 109, 110, 113, 115, 121, 160 military, 250-251 O*NET™ 187, 199, 322, 324 professional and technical workers, 156-157, 158, 161 see also Emotional work; Managers and management; Service workers; Team skills; Teamwork J Japan, 37, 116, 118-119, 135, 139 Job descriptions, 1, 5, 103-104, 169-171, 173, 277-278, 334-340 blue-collar workers, 108, 109 interdisciplinary, 10 ISCO, 174 managers, 10 military personnel, 167, 256-257, 260, 261, 262, 264 national database on work, 10-11 O*NET™ 6, 184-185, 188-189, 190, 199-200, 205, 262, 264, 322, 324-326 see also Dictionary of Occupational Titles; Task analysis Job families, 6, 106, 170, 173, 179, 180, 273, 277, 330-331, 332, 337 ISCO, 330-331 O*NET™ 6, 324-325

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Job security and stability, 52-53, 56, 64-65, 71, 74-81, 269-270 age factors, 77-79, 88, 89 defined, 76 historical perspectives, 64-65, 76-79, 80-81, 87, 269 managerial workers, 75, 81-82, 103, 140, 269 nonstandard workers, 93-94 see also Temporary employment social-psychological contracts, 97-102, 103 see also Downsizing; Temporary employment Job titles, 6, 92, 104, 118, 132, 167, 169, 177, 277-278, 279, 331, 332, 333 O*NET™ 191, 196, 200-201, 211, 212 see also Dictionary of Occupational Titles Joint operations, military, 8, 237, 250, 281 Joint ventures, see Mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures The Joint Vision 2010, 237 K Knowledge factors, 1, 2, 170, 266-267 defined, 188 military personnel, 240, 244, 251, 254, 260, 261, 262, 284 O*NET™ 185, 186, 187, 188, 284, 323 see also Educational attainment; Education and training; Military occupational specialities; Skills L Laborers, see Unskilled workers Legal factors, 11, 15, 16, 17-18, 274 deregulation, 31, 34 globalization, 31 military personnel, 218-219, 224 social-psychological contracts, 97-102, 103 Legislation, specific, 17 Fair Labor Standards Act, 108 Family and Medical Leave Act, 18 National Labor Relations Act, 108 Wagner-Peyser Act, 167 Life expectancy, 45-46 see also Worklife duration M Managers and management, 2, 8, 10, 17, 18-19, 28, 134-140, 159, 161-162, 267, 324, 335, 339 attitudes toward work, 51, 52-55 basis for assessing other jobs, 23 blue-collar/managerial divide, 10, 103, 108-110, 113, 114-116, 120, 160, 265, 272, 283, 285-286 cognitive skills, 136, 140 computer applications, 134, 135 content analysis, 128, 161-162 demographic factors, 42-43, 52-53, 59-62, 64-65, 81-82 digital technology, 40 downsizing, 75, 103, 269 emotional work, 138 hierarchies, flattening of, 32, 73, 81-86, 87, 103, 107, 270, 271 job security and stability, 75, 81-82, 103, 140, 269 military, 246, 248, 252, 261, 262 networking, 90-91 proportion of workforce, historical trends, 59-62 (passim), 81-82 quality control, 136-137 service workers, 128 SOC, 179, 180 team skills, 86, 136-138, 140, 211-213

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technological innovation, 40, 134, 135 training, 54, 95 Manpower and Personnel Integration, 239-240 Marital status, military personnel, 223, 225 Market forces, 2, 3, 4, 5, 15, 30-36, 71, 86, 266-267, 333 financial markets, 33-35, 267 managerial work, 134-135 O*NET™ 185, 186 see also Globalization of markets; Supply and demand Media influences, 75-76, 77, 85 Men, see Gender factors Mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, 34, 86, 87 Military Occupational Databank, 256 Military occupational specialties, 9, 168, 197, 233-235, 245-249, 250, 252-253, 257-259 gender breakdowns, 227-228 O*NET™ 7, 9, 196 racial/ethnic factors, 222-223, 230-232 Military personnel, vii, 2, 7-9, 28, 216-262, 280-285, 337-338 African Americans, 222-223, 230-232 age factors, 8, 223, 224, 225, 281 AP*NET, 9, 259, 261, 262, 284-285 aptitudes, 240, 245 automation, 253-254, 260, 261, 262 budgetary considerations, 221 career ladders/stages, 234-235, 245, 249, 262 career pattern changes, 70-71, 210-211, 234-235, 245 combat activities, 219, 227, 229, 230, 239, 241, 244, 245, 246, 247, 251-254 compensation, 218, 222, 226-227, 253 computer applications, 252-254, 255, 256, 258-259 cultural factors, 219-220, 251, 260 decision-making, 8, 240, 251, 253-254, 260 demographics, 8, 216, 222-235, 281 downsizing, 8, 221-222, 240, 249, 283 educational attainment, 223, 226 education and training, vii, 2, 9, 210, 217, 237, 239-240, 242-243, 245, 252-253, 254, 258, 260, 262 emotional work, 251 environmental factors, general, 222-243 family factors, 220, 225, 281 gender factors, 8, 223, 224-225, 227-230, 281 Hispanics, 223, 230-232 historical perspectives, 167, 256 demographics, 8, 216, 222-235, 281 mission change, 4, 8, 9, 18-19, 29, 217, 221, 235-237, 244, 252 individual performance, 224, 225-226, 240 interpersonal skills, 250-251 joint operations, 8, 237, 250, 281 key features, 216-222 knowledge factors, 240, 244, 251, 254, 260, 261, 262, 284 legal environment, 218-219, 224, managers, 246, 248, 252, 261, 262 marital status, 223, 225 minorities, 222-223, 230-232 mission change, 4, 8, 9, 18-19, 29, 217, 235-237, 244, 245, 247, 248, 252, 260, 282-283, 284 occupational classification, general, vii-viii, 180 O*NET™ 7, 9, 196, 206, 259, 262, 280, 284-285 primary vs duty occupations, 232-235 recruitment, 9, 225-226, 245, 248-249, 260, 262

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reserve personnel, 240, 241, 242-244, 248, 281 skills, 8, 240, 243, 247-248, 250-251, 252-253, 261, 262, 281, 284 SOC, 180 task analysis, 256-257, 262, 264, 284 see also Military occupational specialities teamwork, 111, 238-239, 244, 251, 256, 260 see also "combat activities" supra technological innovation, 8, 210, 237-240, 245, 247, 252-253, 281-282, 284 telecommunications, 238-239, 250, 259, 260, 261 Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire, 186-187 Minority groups, 3, 16, 43, 45, 63-66 age factors, 42-43 immigrants, 3, 89-90 military personnel, 222-223, 230-232 networking, 89, 90 service workers, 121 see also specific groups Mission change, military, 4, 8, 9, 18-19, 29, 217, 235-237, 244, 245, 247, 248, 252, 260, 282-283, 284 joint operations, 8, 237, 250, 281 Multidisciplinary approaches, 9, 23-27, 263, 285 see also Team skills; Teamwork Multipurpose Occupational Systems Analysis Inventory-Close Ended, 172, 173, 339-340 N National Association of Staffing Services, 93 National Center on the Educational Quality of the Workplace, 85 National Employer Survey, 85 National Establishment Survey, 85 National Guard, 240, 241, 242, 244, 248 National Labor Relations Act, 108 National Occupational Classification, 333 National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 7, 196, 280 National Skills Standards Board, 91 Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, 111 Netherlands Standard Classification of Occupations, 174, 175, 331-332 Nonstandard employment, see Employment, nonstandard O Occupational Analysis Inventory, 336-337, 338 Occupational analysis systems, general, vii-viii, 1-3, 6-7, 14, 164-215, 276-280, 330-340 blue-collar workers, 111-112 decision aids, 11, 19-20 defined, 21, 22, 165, 166, 227-257 demographic factors, 42, 61-62 framework, 15 history of, general, 166-169, 171, 178 military, 2, 7, 9, 27, 216-262 see also Military occupational specialities; Military personnel organizational factors, 29, 197-198 service workers, 121 teamwork, 83, 111-112 types of, 169-197 see also Aptitudes; Content analysis; Knowledge factors; Occupational Information Network (O*NET™); Skills; Task analysis

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Occupational and Employment Statistics Classification System, 168, 190, 196 Occupational classification systems, vii-viii, 1, 6, 14, 27, 61, 103, 158-163, 165, 276-280 Australian Standard Classification of Occupations, 174, 175, 330-331 blue-collar workers, 111-112, 159-160 Canadian Classification and Dictionary of Occupations, 174, 175, 332-333 defined, 21, 22, 165 demographic factors, general, 41, 42, 67, 69-70 gender factors, 61-62 historical perspectives, 21-23, 164, 166-169, 171, 178, 179, 264 ISCO, 174-176, 179, 329-330, 332 managerial workers, 161-162 military, 27, 167, 168, 244-249, 253, 337-338 see also Military occupational specialities Netherlands Standard Classification of Occupations, 174, 175, 331-332 O*NET™ 6-7, 169, 279 organizational factors, 83, 86, 103-194, 197-198, 278 product cycle time and, 33 professional workers, 141-146, 161 recruitment, 165 service workers, 123, 160-161 teamwork, 83, 86, 165-166 technical workers, 141-146, 179 types of, 169-171, 172, 173 United Kingdom, 38-39, 174, 175, 332 U.S., major systems, 176-201 SOC, 7, 168-169, 174, 176 see also Dictionary of Occupational Titles; Occupational Information Network (O*NET™); Standard Occupational Classification see also Content analysis; Enumerative systems; Job descriptions; Task analysis; specific occupational categories Occupational Employment Statistics, 176, 177, 178, 196 Occupational families, see Job families Occupational Information Network (O*NET™) 6-7, 9, 169, 178, 183-213, 278-279, 321-328, 332 AP*NET, 9, 259, 261, 262, 284-285 aptitudes, 184, 185, 186, 327 classification systems, general, 6-7, 169, 279 cognitive skills, 186, 199, 322, 324 computer screen samples, 192-194 content analysis/model, 6, 11, 184-186, 203, 279, 322 data collection, 11, 202-205, 207-208, 213-214, 286, 321-322 Department of Labor, 6, 178, 206, 209 descriptive information, 6, 184-185, 188-189, 190, 199-200, 205, 262, 264, 322, 324-326 Dictionary of Occupational Titles and, 7, 186, 190, 191, 197, 203, 209, 210, 280, 321 educational attainment, 184-185, 186, 188, 323 enumerative aspects, 6, 7, 196, 197 environmental factors, general, 185-186, 279, 280, 324 field test and prototype evaluation, 190-191, 204-205, 207-208, 321-328 interpersonal skills, 187, 199, 322, 324 job families, 6, 324-325 job titles, 191, 196, 200-201, 211, 212 knowledge factors, 185, 186, 187, 188, 284, 323

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market forces, 185, 186 military occupational specialties, 7, 9, 196 military personnel, 7, 9, 196, 206, 259, 262, 280, 284-285 AP*NET, 9, 259, 261, 262, 284-285 organizational factors, 185-186, 189, 197, 203-204 ownership, control, and liability, 206 selection and placement, 184, 185, 327-328 skills, 184, 185, 186, 187-188, 194, 195, 322-324 task analysis, 185, 186, 189, 264, 284 team skills, 199, 200-201, 204, 209, 211-213 technological factors, 205, 209 Occupational safety and health, 18 hazardous materials, 183, 189 military personnel, 240 O*NET™ 190 Occupational Values Questionnaire, 186-187 Office of Personnel Management, 173, 339 O*NET™, see Occupational Information Network Operational Data, Analysis, and Structure system, 258 Organizational factors, vii, 1-6 (passim), 10, 14, 15, 18-20, 23-24, 27, 28-29, 73-104, 164, 268-269 blue-collar/managerial divide, 10, 103, 108-110, 113, 114-116, 120, 160, 265, 272, 283, 285-286 blue-collar workers, other, 109-113, 117-121 blurring boundaries, 10, 28-29, 83, 102-103, 105-106, 108-110, 113, 114-116, 119, 120, 124, 127, 141, 146, 158, 160, 161, 256, 263, 272, 283, 285 military personnel, 254-255, 256, 283 see also "hierarchies" infra corporate culture, 97, 136-137, 138-139 decision-making, organizational level, 73, 263-264, 276 demographics, 40-41 globalization, 32, 35 hierarchies, flattening of, 32, 73, 81-86, 87, 103, 107, 270, 271 horizontal division of labor, 28, 107, 110, 136, 151-154, 157, 158, 162, 163, 255, 268, 269, 270 see also Team skills; Teamwork mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, 34, 86, 87 military personnel, 8, 216, 217-222, 225, 237, 240-243, 254-256 downsizing, 8, 221-222, 240 mission change, 4, 8, 9, 18-19, 29, 217, 235-237, 240-241, 244, 245, 247, 248, 252, 260, 282-283, 284 occupational classification systems, 83, 86, 103-194, 197-198, 278 O*NET™ 185-186, 189, 197, 203-204 professional bureaucracies, 146-147, 151-152 psychological approaches, 10, 21, 23-24, 25, 97-102 technological innovation, 19, 20, 87 see also Downsizing; Industrial relations; Managers and management; Team skills; Teamwork Outsourcing, see Contract work and workers; Self-employed persons

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P Part-time employment, 57-58, 92, 93 see also Temporary employment Placement, see Selection and placement Position Analysis Questionnaire, 171-173, 327-328, 334-335 Price factors, 31-32, 266 Problem solving, 5, 33, 187, 260, 274 blue-collar workers, 112, 114 Professional and Managerial Position Questionnaire, 335 Professional associations, 90-91 Professional workers, 141-144, 146-158, 161, 264 age factors, 148-149 attitudes toward work, 51, 52-55 bureaucracies, 146-147, 151-152 cognitive skills, 154-156, 158 computer applications, 142, 149, 150 content analysis, 150, 154-157, 158, 161 demographic factors, 51, 52-55, 59-62 (passim), 148-149 downsizing, 75 emotional work, 156-157, 158, 161 historical perspectives, 51, 52-55, 59-62 (passim), 105, 141, 146, 147-148, 149, 264-265 interpersonal skills, 150, 156-157, 158, 161 networking, education and, 90-91 occupational classification systems, general, 141-146, 161 proportion of workforce, trends, 59-62 (passim), 105 skills, 150, 156-157, 158, 161 SOC, 179 technological factors, 147-148, 149-151 see also Managers and management; Military occupational specialties Promotion, 51, 56, 87, 101-102, 262, 270 Psychological approaches, vii, viii, 2, 20, 167, 340 industrial/organizational, 10, 21, 23-24, 25, 97-102 military personnel testing, 167, 251 social-psychological contracts, 97-102, 103 see also Attitudes and beliefs Public Employment Service, 210 Q Quality control, 2, 17, 20, 33, 71, 83, 95, 108 blue-collar workers, 110, 112-113, 117, 118, 119, 120 managerial workers, 136-137 service workers, 123, 125, 126, 133 Quality of life, 15 R Recruitment, 96, 97, 165 military, 9, 225-226, 245, 248-249, 260, 262 see also Selection and placement Regulatory issues, see Legal factors Reserve personnel, military, 240, 241, 242-244, 248, 281 S Salaries, see Compensation Sales workers, 21, 52-53, 59, 60, 61, 84, 105, 119-125 (passim), 129-131 Selection and placement, 1, 24, 97, 165, 168, 172, 260, 281 O*NET™ 184, 185, 327-328 see also Promotion; Recruitment Self-employed persons, 91, 94, 146, 207 see also Contract work and workers

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Service workers, 10, 13, 17, 21, 28, 121-133, 160-161, 266, 285 attitudes toward work, 52-55 automation, 121-122, 125-126, 127 cognitive skills, 121, 127, 128 compensation, 122, 125 computer applications, 125, 127, 128, 131-133 content analysis, 121-123, 128-132, 160 decision-making, 121-122, 128 defined, 121, 123 demographics, 59-62 (passim), 121, 130 educational attainment, 122, 132 education and training of, 125, 128-130 emotional work, 122 gender factors, 121, 133 historical perspectives, 52-55, 59-62, 121, 124-125, 133 managerial work, 128 minority groups, 121 occupational classification systems, 123, 160-161 proportion of workforce, trends, 59-62 (passim), 121 quality control, 123, 125, 126, 133 skills, 121-123, 128-132 specialist, 128-129 task analysis, 121, 125 team skills, 84 technological factors, 125, 127, 128, 131-133 telecommunications, 125-126, 127 unskilled, 125-126 see also Clerical workers; Sales workers Sex-based factors, see Gender factors Shareholder interests, 34-35, 274 foreign investors, 32, 118 managerial workers, 137 Shift work, 57-59 Simulation training, military, vii, 239 Skills, vii, 1, 2, 13, 29, 66, 67, 106, 170, 172, 266-267, 330-333 attitudes toward work and, 52-55, 57 blue-collar workers, 113-115, 160 compensation, 106 computer applications, general, 37-40, 67 Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 183 digitization, 37-40 ISCO, 174, 329 managerial workers, 136-137 military personnel, 8, 240, 243, 247-248, 250-251, 252-253, 261, 262, 281, 284 O*NET™ 184, 185, 186, 187-188, 194, 195, 322-324 professional and technical workers, 150, 156-157, 158, 161 service workers, 121-123, 128-132 technological innovation and, 36, 37-40, 71, 127 wages and, 67-68, 106 see also Aptitudes; Cognitive skills; Educational attainment; Education and training; Interpersonal skills and work; Team skills; Unskilled workers Small and medium-sized businesses, 74, 121, 122, 126, 131, 214 Social Change and Economic Life Initiative, 38-39 Social-psychological contracts 97-102, 103 Social Science Research Council, 167 Sociology and social factors, 1, 2, 5, 10, 14, 15, 24, 25, 107-108, 286 anthropological studies, 10, 21, 23-24, 25, 48, 286 networking opportunities, 89 research trends, 10, 20-21 see also Cultural factors; Demographic factors; Family factors; Interpersonal skills and work

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Standard Occupational Classification (SOC), 168-169, 174, 176, 177-181, 333 British, 332 managerial workers, 179, 180 O*NET™ 7, 178, 196, 197, 205, 208, 213, 280 Supply and demand, 4, 146 see also Downsizing T Task analysis, 20, 106, 107, 170, 172, 173, 272, 277-278, 331-332, 340 blue-collar workers, 109, 111-112, 160 demographics and, 42 Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 181, 182, 183 ISCO, 174 military personnel, 256-257, 262, 264, 284 see also Military occupational specialities O*NET™ 185, 186, 189, 264, 284 service workers, 121, 125 technical workers, 3, 19 technology of, 3, 19 see also Cognitive skills; Content analysis Task taxonomies, 9, 19, 24, 186, 261, 262, 335-336 Team skills, vii, 5, 29, 72, 83-84, 97, 277 blue-collar workers, 84, 85, 110-113, 114, 115-119 cross-training, 84 managerial workers, 86, 136-138, 140, 211-213 O*NET™ 199, 200-201, 204, 209, 211-213 service workers, 84 Teamwork, 5, 8, 19, 20, 28-29, 33, 83-86, 97, 135, 270, 271, 272, 274 blue-collar workers, 84, 85, 110-113, 114, 115-121 demographic factors, 42-43, 120 historical perspectives, 42-43, 83, 85, 120 military, 111, 238-239, 244, 251, 256, 260 see also Combat activities occupational classification systems, 83, 86, 165-166 unskilled workers, 83-84 Technical workers, 28, 105, 141-158, 161, 264, 324 age factors, 148-149 attitudes toward work, 52-55 career ladders/stages, 153-154 cognitive skills, 154-156, 158 computer applications, 142, 149, 150 content analysis, 150, 154-157, 158, 161 downsizing, 75 historical perspectives, 51, 52-55, 59-62 (passim), 141, 146, 147-148, 149, 264 interpersonal skills, 156-157, 158, 161 military personnel, 210, 231-234 (passim), 246, 252-254, 262 occupational classification systems, 141-146 SOC, 179 skills, 150, 156-157, 158, 161 task analysis, 3, 19 technological factors, 147-148, 149-151 training, 95 see also Military occupational specialties Technological factors, 2, 3, 4, 10, 15-16, 26, 36-40, 71, 108, 272-273, 275-276 blue-collar workers, 113-117 global competition, 31, 32-33 high-performance work systems, 109-110, 130, 189, 264, 272, 274, 278 high-tech communities, 87

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historical perspectives, 15-16, 36-37, 40 managerial work, 40, 134, 135 military, 8, 210, 237-240, 245, 247, 252-253, 281-282, 284 O*NET™ 205, 209 organizational, 19, 20, 87 professional and technical workers, 147-148, 149-151 service workers, 125, 127, 128, 131-133 skills, general, 36, 37-40, 71, 127 training, 95 see also Automation; Computer applications Telecommunications, 37, 74, 130-132 Internet, 16, 37, 127, 205, 209-211, 217, 250, 259 military personnel, 238-239, 250, 259, 260, 261 service workers, 125-126, 127 Telecommuters, 13, 48 Temporary employment, 20, 75, 92-93, 94 see also Part-time employment Titles, see Job titles Total Personnel Command, 249 Towers Perrin, 85, 101-102 Trade unions, 31, 32, 67, 90 networking, 90 social-psychological contracts, 99 Training, see Education and training; Employee development U Unions, see Trade unions United Kingdom, 38-39, 174, 175, 332 Unskilled workers, 13, 150, 268 attitudes toward work, 51, 52-55 proportion of workforce, trends, 59-62 (passim) service workers, 125-126 teamwork, 83-84 V Values, see Attitudes and beliefs Volunteer work, 26, 178 W Wages and earnings, see Compensation Wagner-Peyser Act, 167 War Manpower Commission, 167-168 White-collar workers, see Managers and management; Professional workers Women, see Gender factors Wonderlic test, 327 Worklife duration, 45-49 military personnel, 218 see also Job security and stability Work Profiling System, 172, 173, 340 WorkTrends™ 49, 51, 57, 84-85, 96, 100, 105-106 World Wide Web, see Internet