and women from 1985 to 1991. For men and women combined, for example, the proportion of work at these hours declined from .750 in 1985 to .730 in 1991, a difference that is statistically significant.

Demographic Change Across Occupations

The aggregate occupation distributions of the workforce for selected years since the turn of the century, as well as occupation projections for 2005, are presented in Tables 2.5 and 2.6. Data for 1900 through 1980 come from decennial censuses; data for 1985–1995 come from the Current Population Survey and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The major shifts over this century are well known and documented (see Table 2.5). In occupational locations, the

TABLE 2.5

Occupational Distribution of the Work Force, 1900–1995 (select years)

 

Year (percent)

Occupational Group

1900a

1930a

1960b

1970c

1980c

Professional and technical

4.3

6.8

11.4

14.6

16.0

Managers and officials

5.8

7.4

8.5

8.3

11.0

Clerical

3.0

8.9

14.9

17.8

19.0

Sales

4.5

6.3

7.4

7.2

7.0

Craft and supervisors

10.5

12.8

14.3

13.8

13.0

Operatives

12.8

15.8

19.9

17.8

13.0

Laborers

12.5

11.0

5.5

4.7

4.0

Farmers and farm managers

19.9

12.4

3.9

1.8

2.0

Farm laborers and supervisors

17.7

8.8

2.4

1.3

1.0

Private household workers

5.4

4.1

2.8

1.5

1.0

Other service workers

3.6

5.7

8.9

11.2

12.0

a Base population is "gainful workers."

b Refers to employed persons 14 years and older.

c Refers to employed persons 16 years and older.

SOURCES: U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1975. Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Bicentennial Edition. Part 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Tausky, C. 1984. Work and Society. Itacca, IL: Peacock Publishers. Parts of this table were first published in Spenner (1988).



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