Additional issues associated with teamwork also appear to have important implications for occupations and classification systems but have not yet been examined with solid empirical research. They include the following:

  • How the nature of supervision changes, especially when teams are self-managed;
  • The changing role of the middle manager;
  • The relative power of functional and project managers;
  • Implications for organizational structure and design;
  • Implications for assessing team performance and reward/compensation structures as organizations shift from work structures based on individuals to teams; and
  • Implications for career development, especially associated with shifting from narrow, functional work structures to more cross-functional teams.

Changing Employment Relationships

Organizational restructuring sets off a chain reaction of additional changes in the terms and conditions of employment. In this section we review the most important of these changes.

Changes in Career Patterns

Careers Across Employers

Changes in business may be weakening the prospects for lifetime careers within a single company, but other developments are increasing the opportunities for different career patterns that span organizations—what Arthur and Rousseau (1996) have called "the boundaryless career." These developments include the rising tide of mergers and acquisitions, (Cappelli, 1999), alliances across companies (Lewis, 1995), and joint ventures (Harrison, 1994; Lorange and Roos, 1992). Such activities can give employees access to very different labor markets and networks of information and colleagues. There is evidence from employers that their recruitment and selection priorities have changed and that the trend, even among large companies, is toward hiring employ-

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