Page 331

Index

A

Access. See Public access; Research community access

Access control.

in bounded communities, 158-159

enforcing in open communities, 159-164

Adversaries, in defeating technical protection solutions, 13, 313-318

Advertising-based business models, 81-82, 179-181

All-rights language, 36-37, 64

American Society for Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), 67, 93

American Society of Media Photographers, 68

Anchoring content, to single machine or user, 85, 88, 160-161, 164, 295-302

Anticircumvention regulations, 171-175, 221, 312

exceptions to, 222, 313-318

Archiving

large-scale, 119, 207

the public record, libraries' interest in, 69

Archiving digital information, 9-10, 113-122, 206-209

fundamental intellectual and technical problems with, 116-119

intellectual property and, 119-121

lack of progress in, 207-208

technical protection services, 121-122

ASCAP. See American Society for Composers, Authors and Publishers

Attention, as a commodity, 40, 196

Attribution, rights of, see Moral Rights

Author-operated models for rights management, 68

Authors. See Creators of intellectual property

Auxiliary markets, 82-83, 181-182

B

Balance

upsetting the existing, 24-25

Berne Copyright Convention, 56, 59

BMI. See Broadcast Music, Inc.

Bounded communities, access control in, 158-159

Broad contracts, increasing use of, 64

Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI), 67

Business models, 14-15, 65-68, 79-83, 176-186, 224, 237

bringing technical protection services in line with, 176

dealing with intellectual property, 183-186



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 331
Page 331 Index A Access. See Public access; Research community access Access control. in bounded communities, 158-159 enforcing in open communities, 159-164 Adversaries, in defeating technical protection solutions, 13, 313-318 Advertising-based business models, 81-82, 179-181 All-rights language, 36-37, 64 American Society for Composers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP), 67, 93 American Society of Media Photographers, 68 Anchoring content, to single machine or user, 85, 88, 160-161, 164, 295-302 Anticircumvention regulations, 171-175, 221, 312 exceptions to, 222, 313-318 Archiving large-scale, 119, 207 the public record, libraries' interest in, 69 Archiving digital information, 9-10, 113-122, 206-209 fundamental intellectual and technical problems with, 116-119 intellectual property and, 119-121 lack of progress in, 207-208 technical protection services, 121-122 ASCAP. See American Society for Composers, Authors and Publishers Attention, as a commodity, 40, 196 Attribution, rights of, see Moral Rights Author-operated models for rights management, 68 Authors. See Creators of intellectual property Auxiliary markets, 82-83, 181-182 B Balance upsetting the existing, 24-25 Berne Copyright Convention, 56, 59 BMI. See Broadcast Music, Inc. Bounded communities, access control in, 158-159 Broad contracts, increasing use of, 64 Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI), 67 Business models, 14-15, 65-68, 79-83, 176-186, 224, 237 bringing technical protection services in line with, 176 dealing with intellectual property, 183-186

OCR for page 331
Page 332 for the music market, 79-83 impact of the digital environment on, 177-179 interaction with technical protection services, law, and public policy, 225 less traditional, and their implications for intellectual property, 181-183 using digital content to promote the traditional product, 81-82 role in the protection of intellectual property, 80-83, 176-186 traditional, and their implications for intellectual property, 179-181 C CCI. See Copy control information Certifying authorities, 292 China copyright tradition in, 57 piracy in, 55 Circumvention of intellectual property protection. See Anticircumvention regulations Circumvention of technical protection, 14, 174, 175, 221-223, 311-329 Clearinghouse operations, 65, 67-68 Commercial copying of federal government information, 10, 112, 211 illegal, 17-18, 186-192, 226-227 Commission on New Technological Uses of Information (CONTU), 39 Communications policy, 19, 230-231 Communities. See Bounded communities; Open communities; Research community Compensating creators of intellectual property, 61-65, 273-277 bundling information products, 94, 276 grants, 275 royalties, 274-275 Compression algorithms for, 30 using MP3 format, 84 Computers. See also Networks difference made by programmable, 43-45 installed base of, 169, 219 installing software on more than one, 48 open architecture, 88, 162-163 proliferation of personal, 24, 46 relatively short life of, 89 Constraints, on technical protection, 87-89, 153-154 Content anchoring to single machine or user, 85, 88, 160-161, 164, 295-302 defined, 26 liberated from medium, 32-33 unbundling, 94 Content scrambling system (CSS), 172 Contract law, 19, 34-37, 62, 64, 100-104, 230-231, 237 Control of copying, 38-39, 140-144 correctness as a mechanism in the digital age, 141-144 CONTU. See Commission on New Technological Uses of Information Copy control information (CCI), 163 Copying, 4. See also Private use copying of digital information access by, 6-8, 28, 31, 142 appropriateness as a fundamental concept, 18, 140-145, 230-232 defined, 26 detection in open communities, 164-167, 295-300 economics of, 3-4, 31-32, 38 ephemeral (temporary), 43-144, 229 illegal commercial, 17-18, 186-188, 191-192, 226-227 for private use, 135-136 speed of, 41 Copyright, 277. See also Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998; Economics of copyright defined, 26 deposit, 96, 115-116 exclusive rights in, 146 and individual behavior, 11-12, 123-151 and licensing, 8-9, 100-104, 202-204 and the new information environment, 18-19, 106-109 history, 24-25 public access an important goal of, 7, 97-113, 201 and public compliance with the law, 21-22, 72, 123-128, 212-214 tradition in China, 57 Copyright Act of 1976, 125-128, 132

OCR for page 331
Page 333 Copyright education, 16-17, 136, 216-217, 304-310 audience for, 306-308 cautions regarding, 309-310 content of, 305-306 funding for, 306, 308-309 need for, 304-305 Copyright registration, 96 Copyright Term Extension Act of 1998, 99, 127 Counterfeit, defined, 26 Creators of intellectual property, 5, 61-62, 65, 73-75, 272. See also Rights holders challenges faced by, 12, 64, 122 compensating, 61-65, 273-277 defined, 26 and the digital environment, 5, 232-233 rights of, 56-57, 146-148, 236 Cryptographic envelopes, 301-302 Cryptography. See Encryption technologies CSS. See Content scrambling system Cultural heritage, archiving and preservation of, 69, 114-115 Cybergold, 195-197 Cyber law, research on, 227-230 Cyberspace, new world of, 49-51 D DAT. See Digital audiotape player Data, call for improved, 225-233 Data Encryption Standard, 284-286 Databases, noncopyrightable, 109-111 Decompilation, 135 Decryption. See also Encryption technologies on the fly, 162 just-in-time, 161-162 on-site, 161-162 Derivative work rights, 229 Derivative works, 33, 137 boundaries of, 66 Digital audiotape (DAT) player, 43-44 Digital copying. See Copying Digital distribution, avoiding altogether, 221 Digital divide, 74 Digital information, 3-4. See also Information infrastructure; Intellectual property protection; Private use copying of digital information becoming more a service than a product, 8 capturing and compressing, 29-30 explosive growth in, 23, 28 flexibility of, 37 importance of, 28-38 Digital infrastructure. See Information infrastructure Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998, 14, 105, 221-223, 318-328 and circumvention of technological protection measures, 311-329 and developing technical protection mechanisms, 174-175 and testing technical protection services, 171-173 fair use provisions of, 137-139, 174 permitting digitization, 118 problems with language of, 318-321 Section 103 of, 322-329 Digital networks. See Networks Digital signatures, 289-291, 294 potential of, 291 Digital Signature Standard (DSS), 294-295 Digital time stamping, 165, 299-300 Digital Transmission Content Protection (DTCP) standard, 162-163 Digital video disks (DVDs), 15, 169, 172, 220-221 Digital watermarking, 84, 155, 166-167, 295-299 Disintermediation, 40, 90 Distant access, 35, 37-38 Distribution. See also Mass-market distribution; Superdistribution of information, 38-43, 272-273 Distributors, 39, 65-68 challenges faced by, 67 private, 205 Divx, 168 DMCA. See Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 Dongles, 171 Download times, 81 DSS. See Digital Signature Standard DTCP. See Digital Transmission Content Protection standard DVDs. See Digital video disks

OCR for page 331
Page 334 E Economic efficiency, 53-54, 274-277 Economics of copying, 34, 31-32, 38. See also Information economics Economics of copyright intertwined with technology, law, psychology, sociology, and public policy, 53-54 research on, 17-18, 227-230 Efficiency. See Economic efficiency Electronic deposit, chartering task force on, 10, 208 Encryption keys, management of, 293-295 Encryption technologies, 13, 44, 84, 155, 283-289 key exchange problem, 287 persistent, 85, 155, 161 public-key, 89, 157, 287-289, 291-293 research into, 326-328 symmetric-key, 156-157, 284-287 for technical protection service components, 156-158 End-to-end protection services, 155, 219 Enforcement, 191, 279-281 of access and use control in open communities, 159-164 by network servers, 59 Ephemeral copies, 143-144, 228-229 European Union (E.U.) Directive on Databases, 110-111 F Fair use and other copyright exceptions, 5-6, 278-279. See also Private use copying of digital information arguments that private use copying is fair use, 133-135 arguments that private use copying is not fair use, 132-133 as defense, 5, 133 as affirmative rights, 5, 133 boundaries of, 66 consumers' understanding of, 48 defined, 26 future of, 11-12, 136-139 and individual behavior, 123-151, 213-215 libraries' interest in, 69 promoting public access, 99 schools' interest in, 68-69 Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP), 111-112 Federal government information information infrastructure changing access to, 111-113 public access to, 10, 211-212 Fee-based business model, 179, 182 Fingerprinting, 295, 297 First Amendment concerns, 19, 75, 230-231 First North American serial rights, 62 First-sale rights, 51, 98, 106 Framing, 34 Free distribution business model, 180-182 Freedom of Information Act, 113 G General public, 71-73 complying with intellectual property law, 21-22 need for quality information, 71 understanding copyright in the digital environment, 124-125, 127 Global problems, with differing views, laws, and enforcement, 5-6, 54-55, 58 Government Printing Office, Access system, 111, 211 H Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), 39 I Identity certificates, 292 IETF. See Internet Engineering Task Force IFPI. See International Federation of the Phonographic Industry IIPA. See International Intellectual Property Association IITF white paper, 27, 130, 136, 139 Illegal commercial copying, 186-192, 226-227 estimating the cost of, 17-18, 187-190, 226-227 Individual behavior copyright education and, 216-217 fair use and private use copying, 11-12, 129-136, 213-215

OCR for page 331
Page 335 implications of digital dilemma for, 212-217 need for research on, 20, 212-213 perceptions and, 212-213 Individual use. See Private use copying Information. See also Digital information; Federal government information bundling with ancillary, products, 276 creation, distribution, and consumption of, 272-273 integrity of, 73 leveraging, 278 new kinds and uses of, 33-34 ultimate delivery of, 164, 169 Information appliances, 45 Information economics, 41, 271-281 subtlety of, 6 and technical protection solutions, 14 Information environment. See New information environment Information infrastructure defined, 2 facilitating infringement of intellectual property rights, 21 transaction support from, 89 Information Infrastructure Task Force and Intellectual Property and the National Information Infrastructure, 27, 105, 130, 136, 138-139, 200, 306, 309 Information innovations, impact of granting patents for, 192-198 Information overload, 90 Innovations. See Information innovations, Technological innovations Integrity rights of, 146-147 verifying, 295 Intellectual property (IP) defined, 26 implications of less traditional business models, 182-183 implications of traditional business models, 180-181 maximizing value of, 224 new models for, 140-145, 230-232 role of, 277-279 surviving the digital age, 239 Intellectual property law, 2, 24, 230, 237 and common sense, 126 complexity of, 47-49 European, 54-55 history of, 36, 96-98 need for flexibility in, 238 public compliance with, 21-22, 47, 235 Intellectual property protection, 83-89, 152-198. See also Business models; Technical protection mechanisms for, 12-17 renewable, 87 requirement for ease of use, 87 role of business models in, 176-186 traditional, 7 varying need for, 21 International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), 91 International Intellectual Property Association (IIPA), 186-188 Internet compared to telephone network, 263-266 concealing authorship, 50 enforcing national laws on, 58 history of, 266-267 linking Web sites, 19 pricing and quality of service on, 268-269 private distribution on, 4-5 workings of, 263-270 Internet Archive, 117 Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 268-269 Internet service providers (ISPs), 265 ISPs. See Internet service providers J Java, 315 Journalists, 75, 137 Journals, online availability of scholarly, 39 K Key exchange problem, 163, 287 L Labeling, 165-166, 295, 299-300 Lanham Act, 56 Law. See also Copyright; Cyber law; individual laws global problems with differing views and enforcement, 5-6, 54-55, 58

OCR for page 331
Page 336 interaction with technical protection services and business models, 225 interpreting, 5-6, 123-128 intertwined with technology, economics, psychology, sociology, and public policy, 53-54 network servers enforcing, 59 process of formulating, 20-22, 233-239 software substituting for, 234 Legislation, 111. See also Law, DMCA on archiving, 10, 208-210 cautions about, 239 how to formulate, 233-238 Liability, libraries' interest in, 69, 207 Libraries, 1-2, 68-69, 98-99, 101-102 history of, 78-79 problems faced by, 113-115, 119-120, 121 Web one of the world's largest, 23 Library of Congress, 96, 105, 115-116 THOMAS system, 111, 211 Licensing, 8-9. See also Contract Law, UCITA consequences for public access, 103-104, 202-206 defined, 26 increasing use of, 34-35, 178 mass market, 205-206 offering both promise and peril, 51, 100-104 point-and-click, 212 serial-transaction, 179 single-transaction, 179 site, 179 M Markets. See Auxiliary markets; Mass-market distribution; Music market Marking bits, 83-84. See also Watermarking techniques for copy detection in open communities, 164-167 Mass-market distribution, 14, 102, 182, 185 licensing, 205-206 Media Photographers Copyright Agency (MPCA), 68 MIDI. See Musical Instrument Digital Interface Monitoring for copy detection in open communities, 164-167 Web, 300 Moral rights, of creators of intellectual property, 56-57, 62, 232 MP3 format, 3, 77-78, 80, 89-94, 124 compression using, 84 MPCA. See Media Photographers Copyright Agency Music market, 76-95 broader lessons, 94-95 future of, 78-79 industry consequences of the new technology, 89-94 rationale behind, 77-78 a scenario, 86-87 Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI), 30 Music industry. See Music market N National Archives and Records Administration, 113 National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), 74, 321 National Writers Union, 68 Networks. See also Internet; World Wide Web alternatives to, 15-16, 221 economics and speed of distribution on, 4, 38-39 how the Internet works, 263-270 ownership within, 178 servers as law enforcers, 59 New information environment blurring the distinction between public and private, 107-109, 205 challenging some access rules, 106-107 Niches, protection technologies for, 12-13, 171 Noncopyrightable databases, access challenges presented by, 109-111 O Obsolescence, technological, 210 Obstacles to progress, 51-60. See also Solutions diversity of stakeholders' interests, 51-52 global problems, 54-55, 58 the many intertwined threads, 53-54 variety of forces at work, 52

OCR for page 331
Page 337 One-time pad, 284-286 Open communities copy detection in, 164-167 enforcement of access and use control in, 159-164 Origins of the digital dilemma, 3-4, 28-51 P Patents, 277 defined, 26 impact of granting for information innovations, 19, 192-198 research on, 227-230 Perceptions and individual behavior, 123-127, 212-213 need for research on, 20 Pharmaceutical research, 280 Photocopying, 38, 130, 177 Piracy defined, 26 of digital movies, 94-95 estimating losses from, 187-190, 226-227 of music, 79 Point-and-click licenses, 212 PRC. See Publication Rights Clearinghouse Preservation of the cultural heritage, 69 of digital information, 9-10, 209-210 of the public record, 69 Priceline.com, 195-197 Principles for the formulation of law and public policy, 235-239 Privacy issues, 19, 71-72, 230-231 Private distribution on the Internet, 4-5 publication and, 205 Private use copying of digital information, 11-12, 129-139 arguments that it is fair use, 133-135 arguments that it is not fair use, 132-133 individual behavior and, 123-151, 213-215 wide range of, 130-132 Programmable computers, difference made by, 43-45 Progress, obstacles to, 51-60 Protecting intellectual property. See Intellectual property protection Proxy caching, 19 Psychology, intertwined with technology, law, economics, sociology, and public policy, 53-54 PTO. See U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Public access, 6-10. See also Access control; General public an important goal of copyright, 97-113, 201 and archiving and preserving digital information, see Archiving digital information and blurring of the distinction between public and private, 107-109, 205 changing, for federal government information, 111-113, 211 consequences of licensing and technical protection services, 100-106, 202-206 value of, 201-202 Public-key encryption, 89, 157, 287-289, 291-293 Public-key infrastructure, 291-293 Public policy interaction with technical protection services and business models, 225 intertwined with technology, law, economics, psychology, and sociology, 53-54 process of formulating, 20-22, 215, 233-239 and technical protection mechanism development, 174-175 Public record, archiving and preservation of, 69 Publication changing nature of, 7-9, 39-43, 202-206 determining status of, 108, 116, 133, 205 irrevocable, 202-203 and private distribution, 205 Publication Rights Clearinghouse (PRC), 68 Publishers. See also Disintermediation; Music market; Rights holders challenges faced by, 12, 40, 67 scholarly, 51 Q Quality, issues, 71, 80, 165, 269

OCR for page 331
Page 338 R Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 47, 91-92 Reformatting, periodic, 118 Remote access, 35, 37-38 Reproduction. See Copying Research call for, 225-233 on the economics of copyright, use of patents, and cyber law, 227-230 educational use of, 69 into encryption technologies, 326-328 pharmaceutical, 280 Research community, 70-71 access, need for information, 14, 131 need for leading-edge cryptographers, 14, 220 RIAA. See Recording Industry Association of America Rights. See also Clearinghouse operations; First-sale rights; Work rights exclusive, 146, 236 granting, 36-37, 64 managing, 67, 69 Rights holders, 14. See also Creators of intellectual property; Publishers defined, 26 incentives for, 143, 208-209 Rights management languages, 155, 159, 302 S Sales difference from licensing, 34-35, 100-102 traditional models of, 14, 179 Sampling, 34 Scholarly publishing, 51 Schools, and access to information, 68-69, 99 SCMS. See Serial copy management system Security and Exchange Commission, EDGAR system, 111-112, 211 Security systems. See also Technical protection solutions need for leading-edge researchers in, 14, 220 objectives of, 283-284 Security testing, 328-329 Self-destruct mechanism, 122 Self-publishing, 63. See also Private distribution Serial copy management system (SCMS), 84 Serial-transaction licensing, 179 Shrink-wrap licenses, 100, 212 SightSound.com, 194 Signatures, digital, 289-291 Site licensing, 100, 179 Sociology, intertwined with technology, law, economics, psychology, and public policy, 53-54 Software installing on more than one computer, 48 making backup copies of, 102 sharing, 53, 130 substituting for law, 234 Software-only protection, 154 Solutions. See also Business models; Technical protection evaluating potential, 58-60 in the music market, 79-86 Sony case, 46, 98-99, 129, 138 Sound waves, digitizing, 29-30 "Space-shifting" (of music), 45, 91 Special-purpose devices, protection technologies for, 171 Spiders, 298 Stakeholders concerns, 61-75 creators of intellectual property, 12, 61-62, 65 distributors, 65-68 diversity of, 4-5, 51-52 general public, 71-73 governmental organizations, 73-74 journalists, 75 libraries, 68-69 need for discussion among, 9, 199 other consumers and producers of intellectual property, 73-75 private sector organizations, 74-75 publishers, 12 research community, 70-71 schools, 68-69 standards organizations, 75 Standards organizations, controlling intellectual property, 75 Stock photo archives, 65

OCR for page 331
Page 339 Street price, 189 Subscription purchases, 179 Superdistribution, 302-303 Symmetric-key encryption, 156-157, 284-287 System renewability, 163 T Task Force on Electronic Deposit, 10, 208-209 Task Force on the Status of the Author, 12, 232-233 TCP. See Transmission Control Protocol Technical protection, 12, 148-149, 153-176, 282-303 access control in bounded communities, 158-159 and archiving digital information, 121-122 bringing in line with a business model, 176 circumvention of, 13-14, 311-329 consequences for public access, 202-206 constraints on, 87-89 copy detection in open communities, marking and monitoring, 164-167 effect on fair use, 106-107 encryption, an underpinning technology for, 156-158 end-to-end, 155, 219 enforcement of access and use control in open communities, 159-164 for niches and special-purpose devices, 171 interaction with business models, law, and public policy, 225 levels of, 13-14, 224 limitations of, 153-154, 218 music market and, 83-86 public access and, 104-106 self-destruct mechanism, 122 success of, 173, 176 testing, and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998, 171-173 trusted systems, 167-170 Technical protection services (TPSs), 8-9, 217-221, 237. See also Technical protection; and specific techniques (e.g., Watermarking) Technological innovations, 28-43 computer networks, 38-39 digital information, 28-38 music industry consequences of, 89-94 problems in archiving digital information, 116-119 World Wide Web, 39-43 Technology intertwined with law, economics, psychology, sociology, and public policy, 53-54 rapid evolution in, 20-21 running headlong into intellectual property, 45-46 Telecommunications industry, trends in, 266 Telephone network, Internet compared to, 263-266 Temporary copies. See Ephemeral copies Time stamping technology, 165, 299-300 Trade associations, 17, 186-187, 226 Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement, 139 Trade secrets, 277 Trademarks, 277 defined, 26 protection of, 66-67 Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), 264 Trusted Computing Platform Alliance, 170 Trusted systems, 167-170 24-hour rule, 125 U UCITA. See Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act (UCITA), 35, 103 Universal Copyright Convention, 59 U.S. Constitution, 18, 97, 236 U.S. Copyright Law, 64, 124 complexity of, 127 Sections 106, 107, and 109 of, 145-151 U.S. Copyright Office, 27, 99, 191, 321 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO), 193-196 U.S. Supreme Court, 97-98, 107, 109, 129-130, 133-135, 192-195, 310

OCR for page 331
Page 340 V Vanderbilt University Television News Archive, 121 Video and Library Privacy Protection Act of 1988, 72 Visual Artists Rights Act, 56 W Watermarking techniques, 84, 155, 166-167, 296-299 Web crawlers, 167 WIPO. See World Intellectual Property Organization Work-for-hire agreements, 64 Work rights, derivative, 229 World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), 59, 110, 173, 311, 321 World Trade Organization, 139 World Wide Web free copies predominating on, 178 impact of, 4, 39-43 linking sites on, 19, 46, 70 monitoring, 300 posting to, 108-109, 124 viewing pages on, 31 world's largest copying machine, 23 a worldwide publishing medium, 39-42, 126