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gel implants. Other studies that tested immunoglobulin levels in women with implants—some finding an increase, and others not—have been discussed in Chapter 6. Also, a large study, which was part of a major epidemiological cohort study of connective tissue disease and rheumatic symptoms in women with breast implants, did not find elevated immunoglobulin levels in women with implants compared to healthy controls without implants (Karlson et al., 1999).

Epidemiological studies reported by Deapen and Brody (1992, 1995), Friis et al. (1997b), Kern et al. (1997), and McLaughlin et al. (1998), discussed earlier, have not observed significant (or any) numbers of myeloma cases in women with breast implants. The committee concludes that evidence for an association between silicone breast implants and multiple myeloma or MGUS is insufficient.


There is a consistent, substantial, long-term base of scientific evidence bearing on the experimental carcinogenicity and clinical breast or other cancer experience with silicone and silicone breast implants. Based on its review of this evidence, the committee concludes that the available evidence does not support an association of silicone or silicone breast implants with experimental carcinogenesis (other than rodent solid-state carcinogenesis), primary or recurrent breast cancer, breast sarcoma or other solid tumors, lymphoma, or myeloma. If anything, evidence (though limited) suggests a lower risk of breast cancer in women with silicone breast implants.

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