APPENDIX B
Biographical Sketches

HELEN F. LADD (Cochair) is professor of public policy studies and economics at the Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy at Duke University, where she also directs the graduate program in public policy. Her current research focuses on education policy, particularly performance-based approaches to reforming schools and public school choice. She is editor of Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education and coauthor (with Edward B. Fiske) of the forthcoming When Schools Compete: A Cautionary Tale. In addition, she has published extensively in the areas of education finance, property taxation, state economic development, and the fiscal problems of U.S. cities; she is the author of Local Government Land Use and Tax Policies in the United States: Understanding the Links and (with John Yinger) America's Ailing Cities: Fiscal Health and the Design of Urban Policy . She has been a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, a senior fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, a visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution, and a Fulbright lecturer/researcher in New Zealand. She has a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University.

THOMAS SOBOL (Cochair) is Christian A. Johnson professor of outstanding educational practice at Teachers College, Columbia University. As the Johnson professor, he leads Teachers College in efforts to merge academic research and educational practice. He served as the commissioner of education in New York State for 8 years and as superintendent of schools in Scarsdale, New York, for 16 years. He has chaired the board of the New Standards Project and has served on the executive committee of the Council of Chief State School Officers. As a practitioner and scholar, his research interests include education reform, public school governance and finance, and the development of reflective education practice. He has an A.M. in teaching from the Harvard Graduate School of



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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools APPENDIX B Biographical Sketches HELEN F. LADD (Cochair) is professor of public policy studies and economics at the Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy at Duke University, where she also directs the graduate program in public policy. Her current research focuses on education policy, particularly performance-based approaches to reforming schools and public school choice. She is editor of Holding Schools Accountable: Performance-Based Reform in Education and coauthor (with Edward B. Fiske) of the forthcoming When Schools Compete: A Cautionary Tale. In addition, she has published extensively in the areas of education finance, property taxation, state economic development, and the fiscal problems of U.S. cities; she is the author of Local Government Land Use and Tax Policies in the United States: Understanding the Links and (with John Yinger) America's Ailing Cities: Fiscal Health and the Design of Urban Policy . She has been a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, a senior fellow at the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, a visiting fellow at the Brookings Institution, and a Fulbright lecturer/researcher in New Zealand. She has a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. THOMAS SOBOL (Cochair) is Christian A. Johnson professor of outstanding educational practice at Teachers College, Columbia University. As the Johnson professor, he leads Teachers College in efforts to merge academic research and educational practice. He served as the commissioner of education in New York State for 8 years and as superintendent of schools in Scarsdale, New York, for 16 years. He has chaired the board of the New Standards Project and has served on the executive committee of the Council of Chief State School Officers. As a practitioner and scholar, his research interests include education reform, public school governance and finance, and the development of reflective education practice. He has an A.M. in teaching from the Harvard Graduate School of

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools Education; and an Ed.D. in curriculum and teaching from Teachers College, Columbia University. He was the 1996 recipient of the Harvard Graduate School of Education award for outstanding contribution in education and a 1997 award from Teachers College for excellence in teaching. ROBERT BERNE is vice president for academic development at New York University, where he has been a faculty member since 1976. His primary research interests involve educational policy research issues, such as school finance equity and school-level budgeting. In addition to numerous published articles, he is the coauthor (with Leanna Stiefel) of The Measurement of Equity in School Finance and the coeditor (with Lawrence Picus) of Outcome Equity in Education. He chaired the Outcome Equity Study Group for the New York State Commissioner of Education, served as executive director of the New York State Temporary Commission on New York City School Governance from 1989 to 1991, and was the director of policy research for New York State's Temporary Commission on the Distribution of School Aid in 1988. He has an M.B.A. in finance and a Ph.D. in business and public administration from Cornell University. ROSEMARY CHALK (Senior Program Officer) is study director of the Committee on Immunization Finance Policies and Practices at the Institute of Medicine. Formerly, she was a senior program officer at the National Research Council with the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. She has directed several projects at the National Research Council since 1987, including studies on family violence, child abuse and neglect, and research ethics. Prior to that time, she was a consultant for science and society research projects in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She was the program head of the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1976 to 1986. She has a B.A. in foreign affairs from the University of Cincinnati. DENNIS N. EPPLE is Thomas Lord professor of economics at the Graduate School of Industrial Administration at Carnegie Mellon University and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. His research interests include the economics of education, public economics, industrial organization, and applied econometrics. He has published in the areas of education finance and policy, state and local public finance, and urban economics. He is a former coeditor of the American Economic Review. He has an M.P.A. from the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Princeton University, and a Ph.D. in economics from Princeton University. NEAL D. FINKELSTEIN (Senior Program Officer) is a research coordinator with the University of California, Office of the President, evaluating the university's outreach efforts to primary and secondary schools. Before his work

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools with the committee, he was the assistant director of Policy Analysis for California Education and a research associate with the National Center for Research in Vocational Education. He has conducted research on numerous education policy issues, including public school finance, school governance, school-to-work programs, and early childhood education. He has a Ph.D. in education policy from the University of California, Berkeley. ANNE MARIE FINN (Research Associate) is a research associate at the National Research Council with the Division on Education, Labor, and Human Performance. Previously, she was a policy analyst at the Laurel Consulting Group (Laurel, Maryland), where she contributed to projects examining child abuse and neglect, family violence, youth development, and health care issues. She has an M.A. in applied anthropology from American University. SUSAN H. FUHRMAN is the dean and George and Diane Weiss professor of education at the Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania. She is also chair of the management committee of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. She has written widely on education policy and finance. Among her edited books are Designing Coherent Education Policy: Improving the System, and Rewards and Reform: Creating Educational Incentives that Work (coedited with Jennifer O'Day). She serves on the Policy Council of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management and the congressionally mandated Independent Review Panel for Title I. She is also a vice president of the American Educational Research Association and a consultant to the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission. Her research interests include state policy design, accountability, deregulation, intergovernmental relationships, and standards-based reform. She has a Ph.D. in political science and education from Columbia University. EDMUND W. GORDON is the John M. Musser professor of psychology (Emeritus) at Yale University and a visiting scholar at the College Board. He also serves as a member of the National Research Council's Committee on Early Childhood Pedagogy and is a past member of the National Research Council's Board on Testing and Assessment. He was one of the founders and the first national director of research of Head Start. He has conducted research on children living in poverty, cultural diversity and multicultural education, educational policies for socially disadvantaged children, and cognitive development and schooling. He has published numerous books, including Educational Resilience: Challenges and Prospects (with Margaret Y. Wang), Education and Social Justice: A View from the Back of the Bus, and Handbook of Equal Educational Opportunity. He has an Ed.D. in child development and guidance from Teachers College, Columbia University.

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools JAMES W. GUTHRIE is professor of education and public policy at Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, and director of the Peabody Center on Education Policy. Previously, he was codirector of Policy Analysis for California Education and professor of education at the University of California, Berkeley. He has worked for the California and New York State education departments, served as an education specialist for the U.S. Senate, and was a special assistant to the assistant secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. He has been honored as an Alfred North Whitehead postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University, has been a visiting fellow at the Department of Educational Studies of Oxford University, and in 1990 was named as the American Education Research Association's first senior fellow. He is president of a private management consulting corporation, Management Analysis and Planning Inc., which specializes in education finance and litigation support. He has a Ph.D. in education policy from Stanford University. JANET S. HANSEN (Study Director) is a senior program officer at the National Research Council. She has managed several projects related to education and training, international comparative studies in education, and civilian aviation careers. Prior to joining the NRC staff, she was director for policy analysis at the College Board. She has written and lectured widely on issues relating to higher education finance, federal and state student assistance programs, and how families pay for college. She also served as director for continuing education and associate provost at Claremont College and as assistant dean of the college at Princeton University. She has a Ph.D. in public and international affairs from Princeton University. THOMAS A. HUSTED (Senior Consultant) is associate professor of economics at American University. His research interests include public economics and applied microeconomics, and he has written on such issues as educational efficiency and productivity and student achievement. He has a Ph.D. in economics from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. STEPHEN P. KLEIN is a senior research scientist with the RAND Corporation, where he directs policy research studies in the fields of education, health, and criminal justice. At RAND he has examined alternative assessments of student achievement in science, the relationship between various types of teaching practices and student ability in mathematics and science, and the utility of delivering computer-adaptive tests over the Internet. He serves as a member of the NRC's Committee on Assessment and Teacher Quality and is a past member of the NRC's Committee on Appropriate Test Use. He also serves as a consultant to several professional licensing boards on matters relating to testing and assessment. Before joining RAND, he was a research psychologist with the Educational Testing Service in Princeton, New Jersey, and an associate professor in

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools residence at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has a Ph.D. in industrial psychology from Purdue University. DIANA LAM is superintendent of the Providence Public School District in Providence, Rhode Island. She has also served as superintendent of the San Antonio Independent School District in San Antonio, Texas; superintendent of the Dubuque Community School District in Dubuque, Iowa; and was the first superintendent named under the partnership between the Chelsea School District and Boston University in Chelsea, Massachusetts. Since 1992, she has also served as a senior adviser and consultant with Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound. As principal designer of this program, she has been a consultant to school sites implementing Expeditionary Learning in Boston, Denver, New York City, and San Antonio. She is also a senior fellow of the Annenberg Institute for School Reform and is a member of the board of directors for numerous charitable and educational organizations. She has an M.Ed. in bilingual education from Boston State College. LAURENCE E. LYNN, JR., is the Sydney Stein, Jr., professor of public management at the School of Social Service Administration (where he was dean from 1983 to 1988) and the Irving B. Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago. He is also director of the Center for Urban Research and Policy Studies at the University of Chicago. Formerly, he was professor of public policy and chairman of the public policy program at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government. He has held senior positions with the federal government, including deputy assistant secretary of defense; director of program analysis at the National Security Council; assistant secretary, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; and assistant secretary, Department of the Interior. He has also chaired the National Research Council's Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy and the Committee on National Urban Policy. He has a Ph.D. in economics from Yale University. PAUL A. MINORINI (Senior Consultant) is a director of Boys Hope Girls Hope, a national residential and college preparatory program for at-risk, yet academically capable, youth, headquartered in Bridgeton, Missouri. Prior to joining the National Research Council, he was an attorney at Hogan & Hartson in Washington, D.C., where he represented school districts in efforts to obtain greater education funding equity and program adequacy through policy reform and litigation. He has published several articles related to school finance equity and adequacy legal cases. He has a J.D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School. GARY NATRIELLO is professor of sociology and education at Teachers College, Columbia University. He is also a senior research scientist at the Institute for Urban and Minority Education and editor of the Teachers College Record.

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools His current research interests include the impact of evaluation processes on students, the needs of at-risk students, and the impact of school finance reform on school districts and students. He has worked with at-risk students projects at The Johns Hopkins University National Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged Youth. Among his numerous publications, he is coauthor (with Edward McDill and Aaron Pallas) of Schooling Disadvantaged Children: Racing Against Catastrophe and From Cashbox to Classroom: The Impact of the Quality Education Act in New Jersey (with William Firestone and Margaret Goertz). He has a Ph.D. in the sociology of education from Stanford University. ALLAN R. ODDEN is professor of educational administration at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He is also codirector of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education and director of its teacher compensation project. Previously, he was professor of education policy and administration at the University of Southern California and director of Policy Analysis for California Education. He worked with the Education Commission of the States for a decade, serving as assistant executive director, director of policy analysis and research, and director of its educational finance center. He has also served as a research director for several state education finance projects and served as a consultant to federal, state, and local education officials and policy makers. He has written extensively in the areas of education policy, public school finance, teacher compensation, and decentralized school management. He has a Ph.D. in educational administration from Columbia University and an M.Div. from Union Theological Seminary. TED SANDERS is president of Southern Illinois University. He has extensive experience with state-level education departments. Previously, he served as superintendent of public instruction for the Ohio Department of Education. He also served as superintendent of education for the Illinois State Board of Education and the Nevada Department of Education, and as assistant state superintendent for the New Mexico Department of Education. At the federal level, he served as deputy secretary of education and acting secretary of education, U.S. Department of Education. Active in many educational organizations, he is an executive board member of the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education and board member of the Institute for Educational Leadership. He is past president of the Council of Chief State School Officers and the Illinois-based North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. He has an Ed.D. in education administration and higher education from the University of Nevada at Reno. ROBERT M. SCHWAB is professor and director of graduate studies at the Department of Economics, University of Maryland, College Park. His primary field of research is public economics with an emphasis on state and local government. He has published numerous articles on education finance; his most recent research focuses on education finance reform, the distribution of education re-

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools sources, and education productivity, with a particular emphasis on the relative efficiency of public and private schools. He has a Ph.D. in economics from The Johns Hopkins University. KENNETH A. STRIKE is professor of education at Cornell University. His research interests include the philosophical and political aspects of school reform, professional ethics in education, as well as social and legal educational issues. He has authored numerous books and papers on the ethics of teaching, educational policy, and school administration. His published work includes Educational Policy and the Just Society and The Ethics of Teaching (with Jonas Soltis). He is a past president of the Philosophy of Education Society and is a member of the National Academy of Education. He has a Ph.D. in philosophy of education from Northwestern University. STEPHEN D. SUGARMAN is the Agnes Roddy Robb professor of law at the University of California, Berkeley, School of Law. His published scholarship in the field of educational policy and the law covers topics such as school finance reform, school choice, and the legal rights of public schoolchildren. Among his many publications, he is coauthor (with John Coons and William Clune) of Private Wealth and Public Education and (with John Coons) of Education by Choice, Scholarships for Children, and Making Choice Work for All Families . He is also coeditor (with Frank Kemerer) of School Choice and Social Controversy: Politics, Policy and Law. He has participated in school finance litigation in several states, and on behalf of children from low-wealth school districts argued the case of Serrano v. Priest before the California Supreme Court. He has a J.D. from the Northwestern University School of Law. JOAN E. TALBERT is senior research scholar at Stanford University and codirector of the Center for Research on the Context of Teaching. The center's research investigates education outcomes of various school reform initiatives. She specializes in organizational sociology, the sociology of occupations, and survey research methods and is interested in effects of education policy and school organization on teaching and learning. Her publications include Teaching for Understanding: Challenges for Practice, Research, and Policy (coedited with David K. Cohen and Milbrey W. McLaughlin) and The Contexts of Teaching in Secondary Schools: Teachers' Realities (coedited with Milbrey W. McLaughlin and Nina Bascia). She is a council member of the American Educational Research Association. She recently served on an advisory panel for the National Academy of Education and the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education, charged with recommending directions for research on teacher professional development. She has a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Washington.

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Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools AMY STUART WELLS is professor of educational policy at the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, Department of Education, University of California, Los Angeles. Her research interests include the sociology of education and qualitative policy analysis. Of special interest are educational policy issues pertaining to the politics of race and culture, including school desegregation, school choice, and ''de-tracking" in racially mixed schools. She has recently completed a study of charter school reform in 10 school districts in California. Among her many publications, she is the author of Time to Choose: America at the Crossroads of School Choice Policies and coauthor (with Robert L. Crain) of Stepping Over the Color Line: African American Students in White Suburban Schools. She has a Ph.D. in the sociology of education from Teachers College, Columbia University.

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