should include straightforward practical advice regarding its use.

The guide was modified to make the references to standards more prominent and more frequent. For example, Form 1 directs reviewers and the facilitator to identify standards that should be top priority. Form 2 requires the full text of the standard to be entered. These simple processes help ensure that a reviewer attends to the standards when documenting a review. Furthermore, the summary judgment of the reviewer must be expressed as an opinion about the extent to which students are likely to achieve the standard. Toward the same end, each step of the suggested review process reiterates the overall goal of increasing student achievement by applying the standards.

Scientists participated at each site during the second round of field testing, in each case contributing a point of view that complemented that of the educators and emphasizing their importance to a thorough evaluation. The most significant contribution of scientists is attention to the accuracy, completeness, and presentation of the content. Participating scientists described their experiences as valuable and enlightening.

The second round of field testing demonstrated that reviewer training can improve the quality of the review by providing more extensive and convincing evidence. For example, at one site the reviewers, before beginning their own process, were shown examples of poor responses, then better responses, and then very good responses. The examples used are included in Chapter 5 "Resources for Training." Training also proved useful in defining the review criteria. Reviewers at one site found that generating definitions of each of the criteria as a group was useful, and the group's reviews were more comprehensive than those of any other field test. A sample agenda for generating these definitions is found in Chapter 5 "Resources for Training."

The training and review process described in the guide is as streamlined as possible and will require at least two days of training, followed by one hour of deliberation and writing for each standard used. Nevertheless, every field test produced some participant objections about the length of the process. The Committee is satisfied that the process presented here has been designed with this concern in mind and cannot be shortened without sacrificing the intent and validity of the review process. The Committee hopes that experience with a standards-based review will convince both the reviewers and the teachers and students who use the materials that a careful review is worth the time invested. Local facilitators of this process are encouraged to develop creative strategies to join forces



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