F

Fairness, 11

content standards, 27

performance standards, 35, 47, 49

Federal government, 7-8, 10, 42, 85

accountability, 13, 17, 85, 90, 91, 92-94

Department of Education, vi, 61, 96

early childhood education, 4, 50

education improvement systems, 6

English-language learners, 60, 61, 63

National Assessment of Educational Progress, 68, 99

National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing, 45, 70

National Educational Goals Panel, 18, 33, 51

performance standards, 1, 10, 24, 42

reporting, 45, 55, 68, 70, 99

school-based assessments, 6

students with disabilities, 55, 56, 57, 58

Title I, funding and costs, 1, 7-8

Title I, general, iv-vii, 1-2, 7-11, 12, 15, 17, 19, 23, 41-43, 52

Title I students, number of, 1, 7

yearly progress requirements, 85, 90

Foreign countries, see International perspectives

Foreign-language speakers, see English-language learners

Funding, v

professional development, 84

students with disabilities, 58

study at hand, vi

Title I, general, 1, 7-8

G

Goals 2000, 57

Government role, see Federal government; Funding; Local government; Political factors; State government

I

Incentives and penalties, 3, 6, 17, 18, 19, 22, 89, 92, 96-97, 98, 100

Individualized education programs, 55, 57, 59, 60

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 55, 56, 57

Instructional methods, vi, 23, 74-85, 92, 97

administrators, 17, 76-77

authentic pedagogy, 75

content standards, 24-25, 26

early childhood education, 51

education improvement systems, 3, 4, 5-6, 21, 22

federally mandated tests, 42

flexibility, 9, 17, 18, 92

performance standards, 33, 39-41

professional development, 80

reporting of results, 71

standards-based reform, other, 3, 17, 19, 74

test-taking skills and, 8

yearly progress requirements, 87-88

see also Curriculum and curriculum design

Instructional sensitivity, 4, 46-49 (passim), 82, 94-95

Internal accountability, 6, 19, 92-93, 98

International perspectives, 16, 75

K

Kentucky, 9, 81, 83, 86-87, 93, 95

L

Language Assessment Scales, 65

Language issues, see English-language learners

Local government, 2

education improvement systems, 3

standards-based reform, v, vi, vii, 2

see also School district assessment; specific cities

Los Angeles, California, 70

M.

Maryland, 59-60

Memphis, Tennessee, 19

Michigan, 75-76

Mississippi, 93

Missouri, 90

Motivation, 16, 20, 59, 93

see also Incentives and penalties

Multiple-choice items, 12, 28, 43, 87

Multiple measures, 9, 48, 58, 65, 68-69, 80, 87, 88, 89

accountability, 91-92, 95, 97, 98

early childhood, 53, 54

English-language learners, 63, 66

yearly progress requirements, 87, 88, 89



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement