difference between School A's performance and School B's performance. Simply reporting the schools' overall performance, without showing the differences within the schools, could lead to erroneous conclusions about the quality of instruction in each school. And if districts took action based on those conclusions, the remedies might be inappropriate and perhaps harmful.

Breaking down assessment results into results for smaller groups increases the statistical uncertainty associated with the results, and affects the inferences drawn from the results. This is particularly true with small groups of students. For example, consider a school of 700 students, of whom 30 are black. A report that disaggregates test scores by race would indicate the performance of the 30 black students. Although this result would accurately portray the performance of these particular students, it would be inappropriate to say the results show how well the school educates black students. Another group of black students could perform quite differently (Jaeger and Tucker, 1998).

In addition, states and districts need to be careful if groups are so small that individual students can be identified. A school with just two American Indian students in 4th grade risks violating the students' privacy if it reports an average test score for American Indian students.

Disaggregated results can also pose challenges if results are compared from year to year. If a state tests 4th grade students each year, its assessment reports will indicate the proportion of students in 4th grade in 1999 at the proficient level compared with the proportion of 4th graders in 1998 at that level. But the students are not the same each year, and breaking down results by race, gender, and other categories increases the sampling error. Reports that show performance declining from one year to the next may reflect differences in the student population more than differences in instructional practice.


  • States, districts, and schools should disaggregate data to ensure that schools will be accountable for the progress of all children, especially those with the greatest educational needs.
  • Schools should report data so that it is possible to determine the performance of economically disadvantaged students and English-language learners.
  • In reporting disaggregated data, states and districts should report the associated confidence levels.

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