also organized a number of professional development models that schools can use (Elmore, 1997).
  • In Philadelphia, the district has established Teaching and Learning Networks in each “cluster” of schools. The network staffs visit schools and work with teachers to develop professional development strategies based on performance and instructional needs (Wang et al., 1999).

Recommendations

  • Schools and districts should monitor the conditions of instruction—the curriculum and instructional practices of teachers—to determine if students are exposed to teaching that would enable them to achieve the standards they are expected to meet.
  • Districts and schools should use information on the conditions of instruction to require and support improvement of instruction and learning in every classroom.
  • Teachers should use the information on conditions of instruction in their classroom, along with data on student performance, to improve the quality of instruction. Districts have a responsibility to assist schools in collecting and using such information.
  • Schools should use the information on the conditions of instruction to organize the time and resources provided to teachers and demand support from the district.
  • Districts should use the information on the conditions of instruction to improve the quality and effectiveness of the resources and support they provide to schools for instructional improvement.

Questions to Ask

    ❑  

    Are curriculum and instructional practices monitored in schools?

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    Do schools use data about curriculum and instructional practices, along with performance data, to develop plans for instructional improvement?

    ❑  

    Are data about curriculum and instructional practices, along with performance data, used to strengthen the support provided to schools for instructional improvement?

Criteria

Relationship to Student Standards. The data on classroom practices should be examined against the expectations for student performance embodied



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