as “leading indicators” that provide evidence of progress in advance of progress on tests and other performance measures, in the same way that data on factory orders show growth in the economy in advance of increases in the employment rate.

Recommendations

  • Measures of adequate yearly progress should include a range of indicators, including indicators of instructional quality as well as student outcomes.
  • Measures of adequate yearly progress should include disaggregated results by race, gender, economic status, and other characteristics of the student population.
  • The criterion for adequate yearly progress should be based on evidence from the highest-performing schools with significant proportions of disadvantaged students.

Questions to Ask

  • Are data on the conditions of instruction as well as student outcomes collected and reported in the measures of school progress? Are these data disaggregated by race, gender, economic status, and other factors?
  • Are data collected on school performance over time from high-performing schools with significant proportions of disadvantaged students to determine expectations for adequate progress for all schools?

Criteria

Moving the Distribution. The goal should be to enable all students to reach the desired level; therefore, any definition of progress should include success in reducing the number of students at the lower levels of achievement as well as increasing the number attaining the standards.

Continuous Progress. Progress measurements should encourage all schools to improve continuously; however, states should acknowledge schools that reach high levels of achievement.

Reduction of Error. If states in their adequate progress measures use cross-sectional measures of achievement—comparing this year's 4th graders to last year's—they should measure progress over at least a two-year period, in order to reduce the sampling error that could occur because of shifts in student populations in schools. If states assess each student each year and measure



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