Index

A

Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program, 12, 212, 213-214, 218, 246

Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure, 36

Advanced Applied Technology Demonstration Facility, 13

Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, 60, 190, 246

Air pollution, incineration of contaminants, 19

Air sparging, 7, 135, 147-150, 215, 242

Alcohol flushing, 150-154, 266

Alternate concentration limits, 48-49

American Academy of Environmental Engineers, 13, 246

American Society for Testing and Materials, 65, 66

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 209

Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement, 48, 49, 51

Army Corps of Engineers, 211, 220

Army Environmental Center, 227

Atoms for Peace Program, 25

Attenuation, see Natural attenuation

B

Barrier technologies, see Subsurface barriers

Bioremediation, 215, 216, 217, 266, 267

DNAPLs, 8, 136, 173-180, 185, 187, 189, 194

metals and radionuclides, 6, 78, 110-112, 121

see also Natural attenuation

Bioventing, 13, 140-141, 246

Brownfield sites, 4, 54, 63-64, 69

Budgetary issues, see Funding

Buried waste containment system, 225, 226

C

Canada, 161

Carbon tetrachloride, 29, 156, 184

Chlorinated solvents, vii, 4, 7, 8, 9, 30, 129, 130, 133, 149, 158, 168, 173, 176-178, 182, 183, 184, 186, 189-191, 193

see also specific substances

Chlorofluorocarbons, 29

Chromatography, 82

Chromium, 5, 27, 29, 33, 48, 50, 73, 74, 76, 106, 110, 111, 222-225, 243

Clean Water Act, 42



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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants Index A Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program, 12, 212, 213-214, 218, 246 Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure, 36 Advanced Applied Technology Demonstration Facility, 13 Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence, 60, 190, 246 Air pollution, incineration of contaminants, 19 Air sparging, 7, 135, 147-150, 215, 242 Alcohol flushing, 150-154, 266 Alternate concentration limits, 48-49 American Academy of Environmental Engineers, 13, 246 American Society for Testing and Materials, 65, 66 American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 209 Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement, 48, 49, 51 Army Corps of Engineers, 211, 220 Army Environmental Center, 227 Atoms for Peace Program, 25 Attenuation, see Natural attenuation B Barrier technologies, see Subsurface barriers Bioremediation, 215, 216, 217, 266, 267 DNAPLs, 8, 136, 173-180, 185, 187, 189, 194 metals and radionuclides, 6, 78, 110-112, 121 see also Natural attenuation Bioventing, 13, 140-141, 246 Brownfield sites, 4, 54, 63-64, 69 Budgetary issues, see Funding Buried waste containment system, 225, 226 C Canada, 161 Carbon tetrachloride, 29, 156, 184 Chlorinated solvents, vii, 4, 7, 8, 9, 30, 129, 130, 133, 149, 158, 168, 173, 176-178, 182, 183, 184, 186, 189-191, 193 see also specific substances Chlorofluorocarbons, 29 Chromatography, 82 Chromium, 5, 27, 29, 33, 48, 50, 73, 74, 76, 106, 110, 111, 222-225, 243 Clean Water Act, 42

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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants Climatic conditions, 27, 181 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 3, 10, 40, 41, 43-51, 53, 54, 61, 62, 68, 69, 203, 206 brownfields programs, 63, 64 monitored natural attenuation policy, 58, 189, 191 records of decision, 46, 52, 53, 54, 56, 61-63, 69 risk-based assessment policies, 67 technical impracticability waivers, 55, 56, 57 Computer applications, 80-82 Consortium for Environmental Risk Evaluation, 30-31, 32-33, 34-35 Containment systems, see Subsurface barriers Contractors and contracting, 9, 10, 15-16, 204, 205, 207, 211, 218 -219, 225, 236, 241, 245 Cooperative research and development agreements, 10, 225, 227, 236 Cosolvent flushing, 8, 150-154, 194, 241 Cost and cost-benefit factors CERCLA, 46 Department of Energy spending, 15, 19, 204-205, 206, 207, 211-212, 213 regulatory environment, 54, 57, 61-63 remediation technologies, viii, 11, 19, 15, 90, 204-205, 206, 207, 211-212, 213, 220, 222, 223, 225, 228-229, 232, 236, 241, 246 DNAPLs, 5-6, 9, 137, 146, 150, 182, 188 metals and radionuclides, 112, 120 Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area, 12, 204-205, 236, 241, 246 see also Funding Court cases, 40 Creosote, 165, 229 Cryogenic barriers, 90, 216, 265, 266, 267 D Deep-soil mixing, 86, 90, 91, 265-266 Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids, ix, 1, 2, 16, 25, 27, 29, 129-201 air sparging, 7, 135, 147-150, 215, 242 alcohol flushing, 150-154, 266 bioremediation, 8, 136, 173-180, 185, 187, 189, 194 bioventing, 13, 140-141, 246 cosolvent flushing, 8, 150-154, 194, 241 Department of Energy programs, 145, 150, 161, 167, 171, 172-173, 183, 228-235, 240, 241-242, 243; see also Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area dynamic underground stripping, 228-229 electrical and electrokinetic remediation, 135, 163, 166-168, 171173, 194, 228, 229, 230-235, 241, 265, 266 geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic factors, 7, 8, 18, 23, 25-27, 130-135 (passim), 146, 148, 150, 155-159 (passim), 162, 165-166, 177, 185, 188, 192-195 in situ oxidation, 8, 27, 134, 159-162, 242, 267 in situ vitrification, 9, 135, 168-171, 194 joule heating, 166, 169 Lasagna, 172, 217, 232-235, 248, 265 perchloroethylene, 29, 52, 53, 145, 156, 161-162, 167, 173-178 (passim), 186, 189-190, 230 phytoremediation, 9, 180-182 regulatory environment, 48, 55 remediation technologies, 4, 7-9, 11, 17, 19, 84-85, 115, 133-135, 140-195, 208, 228-235, 241-242 cost factors, 5-6, 9, 137, 146, 150, 182, 188 evaluation, 134-136, 139, 145-146, 149-150, 152-154, 157-159, 161162, 165-168, 170-173, 177-182, 185-188, 190-195, 243 soil vapor extraction, 8, 9, 11, 135, 140-146, 150, 167, 168, 178, 193-194, 202, 215, 216, 229, 241-242, 266 thermally enhanced vapor extraction, 9, 228, 230-231, 243, 265 steam injection, 8, 163-166, 134, 163-166, 194, 228, 229, 241, 267 surfactants, 8, 134, 151, 154-159, 194, 241, 266 trichloroethylene, 29, 48, 52, 53, 106, 149, 156, 157, 161-162, 167, 172

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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants 182 (passim), 186-187, 189-191, 230 see also Chlorinated solvents; Polychlorinated biphenyls; Volatile organic compounds Department of Defense remediation technologies, viii, 7, 9-11 Department of Energy, vii, x, 1-2, 3, 15-37 Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program, 12, 212, 213-214, 218, 246 contractors and contracting, 9, 10, 15-16, 204, 205, 207, 211, 218 -219, 225, 245 cooperative research and development agreements, 10, 225, 227, 236 DNAPLs, 145, 150, 161, 167, 171, 172-173, 183, 228-235, 240, 241242, 243 extent of cleanup requirements, 2-3, 21-24, 36 sites by state, 253-263 funding, 36-37, 204-205, 207-208, 208-209, 211 Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), 9-11, 12, 13, 19-21, 208, 218-220, 235-236, 240-243 (passim), 244, 247-248 historical perspectives, 1, 2-3, 15, 25, 202, 211 management and managers general, 11, 13, 16, 205, 207, 217, 244-245 OST, 10, 205-206, 208, 217 metals and radionuclides, 72-128 (passim), 222-228, 240-241, 243, 254-263 Office of Environmental Management (DOE), 36, 207, 211-212, 218 Office of Environmental Restoration, 2-3, 12, 19, 35-36, 212, 244 Office of Science and Technology, viii-ix, 2, 10, 20, 203-211, 217 -219; see also Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area Office of Technology Development (DOE), 19 remediation technologies, 4, 9-11, 36, 72, 84-85, 101, 202-239; see also Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area regulatory environment, 9, 10, 15-16, 18, 39-71, 206-207, 209, 211, 221, 236 see also specific DOE sites Dichloroethylene, 20, 48, 174, 176-179 (passim), 186-187, 190, 191 Diethylenetriaminepentaacectic acid, 276 Direct-push technologies, 133, 137 Drinking water, 7 regulatory issues, 3, 39, 42, 49-50, 149-150, 161 maximum contaminant levels, 47-48, 49, 52 Safe Drinking Water Act, 42, 47-48, 52 Dynamic underground stripping, 228-229 E Ecological risk assessments, 31, 33-35, 67, 73 Economic factors, 203-205 contractors and contracting, 9, 10, 15-16, 204, 205, 207, 211, 218 -219, 225, 245 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors; Funding Electrical and electrokinetic remediation systems, 11 DNAPLs, 135, 163, 166-168, 171-173, 194, 228, 229, 230-235, 241, 265, 266 metals and radionuclides, 6, 8, 78, 81, 112-114, 121 Electrochemical analysis, 82, 95 Energy Policy Act, 257 Enhanced Site Specific Risk Assessment, 65 Environmental Management Science Program, 13, 248 Environmental Protection Agency, 3, 35, 42, 47, 49, 53, 61-62 brownfields, 63, 64 DNAPLs, 51, 145, 152-153, 157-158, 179, 189, 232 management and managers, 49, 62 metals and radionuclides, 102, 113, 115 natural attenuation, 60, 61, 189, 190 technical impracticability waivers, 55-58 SITE, 102, 113, 115, 179 Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 82, 276, 118

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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants Evaluation and evaluation issues, 3, 17, 120-122, 209, 244-245 Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program, 12, 212, 213-214, 218, 246 air sparging, 135, 149-150 alcohol and cosolvent flushing, 152-154, 194 bioremediation, 111-112, 121, 177-180, 194 contaminant characterization, 28-29 DNAPLs, remediation, 134-136, 139, 145-146, 149-150, 152-154, 157159, 161-162, 165-168, 170-173, 177-182, 185-188, 190-195, 243 electrical and electrokinetic processes, 113-114, 121, 135, 167-168, 172-173 , 194 field tests, 8 in situ oxidation, 134, 161-162, 194 in situ redox manipulation, 109-110, 121 in situ vitrification, 9, 99-101, 120-121, 134, 170-171, 194 metals and radionuclides, remediation, 77-80, 105-107, 109-110, 111 -114, 118-121 natural attenuation, 60, 69, 190-191 peer review, 12, 67, 68, 209, 244 permeable reactive barriers, 105-107, 109-110, 121, 183, 185-188, 194 phytoremediation, 118-120, 121, 181-182 remediation guidelines, vii, ix-x, 13, 16-17, 55, 69, 190, 246 steam injection, 134, 165-166 soil flushing and washing, 115-116, 121 soil vapor extraction, 135, 145-146, 178, 193-194 solidification and stabilization, 102-103, 121 subsurface barriers, 94-96, 105-107, 109-110, 120, 121; Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area, 12-13, 244-245 Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation program, 102, 113, 115, 179 surfactants, 134, 157-159, 194 technical impractibility waivers, 57 see also Risk assessment; Sensor technologies Excavation of contaminated soils, 19, 35 Exposure, see Risk assessment F Federal Facilities Compliance Act, 40, 41 Federal government, 1, 203-204 see also Funding; Legislation; Regulatory issues; specific departments and agencies Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable, 13, 246 Fernald Environmental Management Project, 30, 32, 33, 35, 43, 62-63, 73, 213, 259, 266, 267 Foreign countries, see International perspectives Funding, 13 Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program, 213-214 brownfields programs, 64 Department of Energy, not SCFA, 36-37, 204-205, 207-208, 208-209, 211 Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA), 9-11, 12, 13, 19-21, 208, 218-220, 235-236, 240-243 (passim), 244, 247-248 see also Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act G Gasoline, 229, 148, 165 General Accounting Office, 10, 204, 205-206, 207, 208-209, 217, 219 Geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic factors, 7, 16, 21, 27 DNAPLs, 7, 8, 18, 23, 25-27, 130-135 (passim), 146, 148, 150, 155159 (passim), 162, 165-166, 177, 185, 188, 192-195 metals and radionuclides, 25, 27, 76-77, 86, 225, 227 subsurface barriers, 86, 90, 95-96 GeoVIS, 137 Ground penetrating radar, 138 Guidance for Evaluating the Technical Impracticability of Ground-Water Restorations, 55 Guide to Documenting and Managing Cost

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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants and Performance Information for Remediation Projects, 13, 246 H Hanford Site, 11, 21, 24, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 36, 43, 52, 73, 110, 222-225, 263, 265, 266, 268 Henry's law constant, 130, 142, 145, 147 Historical perspectives Department of Energy contractors, 211 Department of Energy site cleanup, 1, 2-3, 15, 25, 202, 211 regulatory environment, 3-4, 58, 63 Superfund, 202 Human health risks, see Risk assessment Hydrogeology, see Geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic factors Hydrosparge VOC sensing system, 137 I Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, 11, 21, 24, 26, 30, 33, 34, 36, 52-53, 213, 214, 222, 225, 243, 257, 265-268 (passim) Incineration, 18-19 In situ bioremediation, see Bioremediation In situ oxidation, 8, 27, 134, 159-162, 242, 267 In situ redox manipulation, 5, 11, 78, 80, 107-110, 121, 222-225, 243 In situ vitrification, 9, 35, 208-209, 266 DNAPLs, 9, 135, 168-171, 194 metals and radionuclides, 5, 78, 80, 96-101, 120-121 Interagency Working Group on Brownfields, 64 International perspectives, 115-116, 161 Internet, 19 Ion exchange systems, 73, 86, 113, 114, 115, 241 J Joule heating, 166, 169 L Lasagna, 172, 217, 232-235, 248, 265 Laser-induced fluorescence sensors, 137 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 11, 16, 22, 43, 165, 228, 254, 265-268 (passim) Legal Environmental Assistance Foundation, 40 Legislation Clean Water Act, 42 Energy Policy Act, 257 Federal Facilities Compliance Act, 40, 41 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 3, 40-48, 49, 53, 54, 55, 57, 63, 68, 206, 213 Safe Drinking Water Act (1974), 42, 47-48, 52 Superfund Act, see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Toxic Substances Control Act, 42 Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Control Act, 3, 22, 43, 46-47, 49, 51, 68 see also Regulatory issues Light nonaqueous-phase liquids, 137, 157-158, 165 Litigation, see Court cases Local government, see State and local governments Los Alamos National Laboratory, 22, 43, 258 M Management and managers contractors and contracting, 9, 10, 15-16, 204, 205, 207, 211, 218 -219, 225, 245 Department of Energy, general, 11, 13, 16, 205, 207, 217, 244-245 OST, 10, 205-206, 208, 217 EPA, 49, 62 regulatory issues, 40, 49, 51, 54-55, 57, 60, 61, 62-63, 65, 69, 245 site-level, 9, 16, 40, 47, 49, 51, 54-55, 57, 60, 61, 62-63, 65, 69, 204, 212, 225, 244

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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants Maximum contaminant levels, 47-48, 49, 52 Metal pollutants, 1, 16, 29-30, 72-128, 208 bioremediation, 6, 78, 110-112, 121 Department of Energy programs, 72-128 (passim.), 222-228, 240-241, 243, 254-263; see also Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area deep-soil mixing, 86, 90, 91, 265-266 electrical and electrokinetic remediation, 6, 8, 78, 81, 112-114, 121 geologic conditions, 25, 27, 76-77, 225, 227 in situ redox manipulation, 5, 11, 78, 80, 107-110, 121, 222-225, 243 in situ vitrification, 5, 78, 80, 96-101, 120-121 ion exchange systems, 73, 86, 113, 114, 115, 241 phytoremediation, 6, 78, 80, 116-120, 121 pozzolanic agents, 79, 80, 101, 102 remediation technologies, 4, 5-6, 11, 17, 19, 76, 77, 78-122, 168, 213, 222-228, 241, 243 cost factors, 112, 120 evaluation, 77-80, 105-107, 109-110, 111-114, 118-121 soil flushing and washing, 6, 18, 78, 81, 112, 113, 114-116, 121 solidification and stabilization techniques, 5, 78, 80, 101-103, 121, 215 sorption, 76, 78, 80, 86, 103 speciation, 76, 77, 80 Methanol, 139, 151 Monument Valley, 254 Mound Plant, 43, 73, 213, 214, 259, 265, 267 N National Contingency Plan, 51 National Priorities List, 43, 44 Native Americans, 31, 32 Natural attenuation, 7, 54, 57, 58-61, 69, 73, 173, 189-191, 215, 243 Natural Resources Defense Council, 40 Naval installation sites, 65, 67-68, 257 Netherlands, 115-116 Neutron probes, 138 Nevada Test Site, 35, 43, 259 Nonaqueous-phase liquids, 120, 137, 142, 157-158, 165 see also Dense nonaqueous-phase liquids; Light nonaqueous-phase liquids O Oak Ridge Reservation, 21, 24, 26, 30, 32-33, 34, 35, 43, 53, 62-63, 73, 214, 261, 265, 267, 268 Office of Environmental Management (DOE), 36, 207, 211-212, 218 Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE), 2-3, 12, 19, 35-36, 212, 244 Office of Science and Technology (DOE), 2, 10, 20, 203-211, 217-219 see also Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area Office of Technology Development (DOE), 19 Oil, see Petroleum Oxidation, see In situ oxidation P Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, 43, 172, 234-235, 257, 265 Pantex Plant, 43, 262, 268 Peer review, 12, 67, 68, 209, 244 Penetrometers, 11, 83, 133, 216, 222, 225-228, 243 Perchloroethylene, 29, 52, 53, 145, 156, 161-162, 167, 173-178 (passim), 186, 189-190, 230 Permeable reactive barriers, 5, 78, 80, 81, 103-107, 121, 136, 182 -188, 194, 213, 215, 217, 242, 265 see also In situ redox manipulation Petroleum, 65, 144, 166, 175-176, 217 Phytoremediation DNAPLs, 9, 180-182 metals and radionuclides, 6, 78, 80, 116-120, 121 Plutonium, 25, 28, 31, 52, 76, 77, 111, 256 Polychlorinated biphenyls, 29, 42, 47, 102 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 137 Potassium permanganate, 159-162, 183-185, 187 Pozzolanic agents, 79, 80, 101, 102

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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants Pressurized injection, barriers, 88-89 Privately owned sites, 40, 203 Public exposure, see Risk assessment Public involvement, 2, 19, 67, 68, 206 Pump-and-treat systems, 3, 7, 18, 27, 36, 85, 104, 150, 212, 215, 222, 225, 228-229 Push-in technologies, 133, 137 R Radar, see Ground penetrating radar Radio-frequency heating, 167-167, 230 Radionuclides, 1, 16, 27-28, 29-35, 72-128, 208, 222 deep-soil mixing, 86, 90, 91, 265-266 Department of Energy programs, 72-128 (passim), 222-228, 240-241, 243, 254-263; see also Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area electrical and electrokinetic remediation, 6, 8, 78, 81, 112-114, 121 geologic conditions, 25, 27, 76-77, 86 in situ redox manipulation, 5, 11, 78, 80, 107-110, 121, 222-225, 243 in situ vitrification, 5, 78, 80, 96-101, 120-121 ion exchange systems, 73, 86, 113, 114, 115, 241 phytoremediation, 6, 78, 80, 116-120, 121 pozzolanic agents, 79, 80, 101, 102 remediation technologies, 4, 5-6, 11, 17, 19, 74, 76, 77, 78-122, 171, 213, 214, 222-228, 241, 243 cost factors, 112, 120 evaluation, 77-80, 105-107, 109-110, 111-114, 118-121 see also specific technologies infra and supra soil flushing and washing, 6, 18, 78, 81, 112, 113, 114-116, 121 solidification and stabilization techniques, 5, 78, 80, 101-103, 121, 215 sorption, 76, 78, 80, 86, 103 speciation, metals and radionuclides, 76, 77, 80 standards, 48, 50, 52-53; see also Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Control Act see also Plutonium; Uranium Regulatory issues, 2, 3-4, 39-71, 240, 245 alternate concentration limits, 48-49 applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement, 48, 49, 51 Department of Energy, 9, 10, 15-16, 18, 39-71, 206-207, 209, 211, 221, 236 drinking water, 3, 39, 42, 49-50, 149-150, 161 maximum contaminant levels, 47-48, 49, 52 Safe Drinking Water Act, 42, 47-48, 52 historical perspectives, 3-4, 58, 63 management and managers, 40, 49, 51, 54-55, 57, 60, 61, 62-63, 65, 69, 245 maximum contaminant levels, 47-48, 49, 52 new technologies and, 9, 10, 15-16, 206-207, 209, 211, 221, 236 pump-and-treat remediation, 18 records of decision, 46, 52, 53, 54, 56, 61-63, 69 secrecy requirements, 25 soil screening level, 49-50 Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area, 9, 10, 12, 39, 54, 55, 57, 61, 63, 68, 69, 221, 236, 243, 245 technical impracticability waivers, 54-58, 69 see also Legislation Redox manipulation, see In situ redox manipulation Remediation technologies, 1-2, 16-17, 55, 56-70 conventional, limitations of, 17-19 cost factors, 11, 19, 15, 90, 204-205, 206, 207, 211-212, 213, 220, 222, 223, 225, 228-229, 232, 236, 241, 246 DNAPLs, 5-6, 9, 137, 146, 150, 182, 188 metals and radionuclides, 112, 120 DNAPLs, 4, 7-9, 11, 17, 19, 84-85, 115, 133-135, 140-195, 208, 228 -235, 241-242 cost factors, 5-6, 9, 137, 146, 150, 182, 188 evaluation, 134-136, 139, 145-146, 149-150, 152-154, 157-159, 161

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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants 162, 165-168, 170-173, 177-182, 185-188, 190-195, 243 see also specific technologies infra and supra Department of Defense, viii, 7, 9-11 Department of Energy, viii-ix, 4, 9-11, 36, 72, 84-85, 101, 202-239; see also Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area metals and radionuclides, 4, 5-6, 11, 17, 19, 76, 77, 78-122, 168, 213, 222-228, 241, 243 cost factors, 112, 120 evaluation, 77-80, 105-107, 109-110, 111-114, 118-121 see also specific technologies site-level management and managers, 9, 16, 40, 47, 49, 51, 54-55, 57, 60, 61, 62-63, 65, 69, 204, 212, 225, 244 technical impracticability waivers, 54-58, 69 see also Evaluation and evaluation issues; Regulatory environment; Sensor technologies; Technical assistance; specific technologies Remediation Technologies Development Forum, 13, 248 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 3, 40-48, 49, 53, 54, 68, 206, 213 brownfields, 63 technical impracticability waivers, 55, 57 Risk assessment, general, viii, 3, 13, 17, 21, 29, 30-35, 54, 65-68, 69, 241 brownfields, 64 ecological, 31, 33-35, 67, 73 excavation of soils, 18 metals and radionuclides, 74 new technology, 9, 10 subsurface barriers, 9, 10, 11 Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area, 9, 10, 11 wildlife, 33-35 Risk-based corrective action, 65-68, 69 Risk-based screening level, 4 Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, 21, 24, 26, 30, 32, 34, 35, 43, 53, 73, 214, 256 S Safe Drinking Water Act, 42, 47-48, 52 Sandia National Laboratories, 43, 60, 73, 213, 230, 254, 259, 267, 268 Savannah River Site, 19, 21, 24, 26, 30, 32, 34, 35, 43, 53, 73, 150, 161, 214, 261, 265, 266, 267 Seismic techniques, 95, 138 Semivolatile organic compounds, 8, 99, 168, 193-194, 230 Sensor technologies, 83-84, 94, 95, 133, 137-140, 213, 216, 221, 225, 227, 228, 242, 266, 267 see also specific technologies Sequential extraction procedures, 82-83 Single-extraction procedures, 83 Site characterization and analysis penetrometer system, 222, 225-228, 243 Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites, 60 Site technology coordination groups, 207 Site Technology Deployment Program, 211-212 Soil flushing and washing, 6, 18, 78, 81, 112, 113, 114-116, 121 Soil screening level, 49-50 Soil vapor extraction, 8, 9, 11, 135, 140-146, 150, 167, 168, 178, 193-194, 202, 215, 216, 229, 241-242, 266 thermally enhanced vapor extraction, 9, 228, 230-231, 243, 265 Solidification and stabilization techniques, 5, 78, 80, 101-103, 121, 215 Solvents for DNAPL remediation, 134 see also Chlorinated solvents; Cosolvent flushing Sorption, 76, 78, 80, 86, 103 Southern States Energy Board, 209, 211 Speciation, metals and radionuclides, 76, 77, 80 Spectroscopy, 77, 83, 137 State and local governments, 39, 40, 140, 206, 240 brownfields, 63-64 monitored natural attenuation, 60-61 risk-based corrective action, 65 Standards, see Regulatory issues Steam injection, 8, 163-166, 134, 163-166,

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Ground Water & Soil Cleanup: Improving Management of Persistent Contaminants 194, 228, 229, 241, 267 Strontium, 28, 29, 48, 102, 113 Subsurface barriers, 5, 9, 11, 12, 36, 84-96, 120, 136, 188, 213, 222, 225, 242-243 cryogenic barriers, 90, 216, 265, 266, 267 geologic, geochemical, and hydrologic conditions, 86, 90, 95-96 permeable reactive barriers, 5, 78, 80, 81, 103-107, 121, 136, 182 -188, 194, 213, 215, 217, 242, 265; see also In situ redox manipulation risk assessments, general, 9, 10, 11 trenching, 5, 43, 86-88, 106, 115, 121, 143, 152, 177, 183, 188 Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area, 2, 7, 9-13, 19, 202-236, 240-248 cost effectiveness, 12, 204-205, 236, 241, 246 funding, 9-11, 12, 13, 19-21, 208, 218-220, 235-236, 240-243 (passim), 244, 247-248 regulatory environment, 9, 10, 12, 39, 54, 55, 57, 61, 63, 68, 69, 221, 236, 243, 245 Superfund, see Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation program, 102, 113, 115, 179 Surfactants, 8, 134, 151, 154-159, 194, 241, 266 T Technetium, 5, 28, 29 Technical assistance, Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area, 10, 12, 13, 246-247 Technical impracticability waivers, 54-58, 69 Technology Practices Manual for Surfactants and Cosolvents, 151 Trenching, 5, 43, 86-88, 106, 115, 121, 143, 152, 177, 183, 188 Tetrachloroethylene, 48 Thermal desorption volatile organic compound sampler, 137 Thermally enhanced vapor extraction, 9, 228, 230-231, 243, 242, 243, 265 Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure Toxic Substances Control Act, 42 Trichloroethane, 181 Trichloroethylene, 29, 48, 52, 53, 106, 149, 156, 157, 161-162, 167, 172-182 (passim), 186-187, 189-191, 230 Tritium, 28, 29, 208 U Uranium, 25, 28, 29, 32, 33, 48, 53, 73, 74, 76, 77, 111, 213, 254 -263 Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Control Act, 3, 22, 43, 46-47, 49, 51, 68 V Vadose zone, 84, 94, 95, 130, 131, 132 Video imaging system, (GeoVIS), 137 Vinyl chloride, 29, 48, 173, 176, 177, 179, 186-187, 190 Vitrification, see In situ vitrification Volatile organic compounds, 137, 140-146, 150, 161, 178, 186, 213 see also Semivolatile organic compounds W WASTECH, 13, 246 Weather, see Climatic conditions Wildlife, 33-35 World Wide Web, see Internet