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GAIL BUTTERFIELD: Okay. The reason I asked is, it is very clear from all the presentations, that we have very little information on protein requirements in women, and I suspect from work that I have done with female athletes that in fact women as a group may be somewhat at risk for inadequate intakes. So it would be interesting to see what the protein and energy intakes were for the female soldiers.

ALANA CLINE: We do have data available from the study we did at Fort Sam Houston on iron deficiency in women, so we do have some data from women's studies.

PARTICIPANT: And we are planning a field study in which we will have a significantly larger women's population than we have had in the past, too. That will be done in April and May.

ROBERT NESHEIM: Any other questions? Yes?

DOUGLAS WILMORE: A question for Harris Lieberman and for Karl Friedl. We have heard some really fairly simple and practical strategies about repletion of muscle glycogen. In practice, in Ranger training, are any of those strategies utilized at all, for example, carbohydrate loading, with or without protein, at the end of a march or at the end of an exercise period?

KARL FRIEDL [off microphone]: It is not used in Ranger training. The point there is to create this energy deficit as one of the deliberate stressors. That is their training strategy.

We have a new carbohydrate drink that has just been fielded, and maybe Pat Dunne can talk about that, a maltodextran drink, which was really the result some of the field studies done by ARIEM, and they finally recommended that it get type-classified. Actually, the USARIEM folks and the Natick folks have been ahead of the game there. The product is already available.

So there is at least a carbohydrate supplement, an energy supplement, which, in some of the Pennington studies of Special Forces soldiers on the treadmill, was shown to enhance and prolong the endurance time by 15 percent when soldiers received the supplement during exercise.

DOUGLAS WILMORE [off microphone]: We have examined the effects of protein supplements, but didn't consider using potassium, sodium, and some of the other factors.

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