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Protein and Amino Acids, 1999

Pp. 353-368. Washington, D.C.

National Academy Press

B
Biographical Sketches

COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH

ROBERT O. NESHEIM (Former Chair, through June 30, 1998) was vice president of research and development and later science and technology for the Quaker Oats Company; he retired in 1983. Before his retirement in 1992, he was vice president of science and technology and president of the Advanced Health Care Division of Avadyne, Inc. During World War H, he served as captain in the U.S. Army. Dr. Nesheim has served on the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board, currently chairing the Committee on Military Nutrition Research and formerly chairing the Committee on Food Consumption Patterns and serving as a member of several other committees. He also was active in the Biosciences Information Service (as board chairman), American Medical Association, American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and Food Reviews International editorial board. Dr. Nesheim's academic services included professor and head of the Department of Animal Science at the University of Illinois, Urbana.



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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Protein and Amino Acids, 1999 Pp. 353-368. Washington, D.C. National Academy Press B Biographical Sketches COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH ROBERT O. NESHEIM (Former Chair, through June 30, 1998) was vice president of research and development and later science and technology for the Quaker Oats Company; he retired in 1983. Before his retirement in 1992, he was vice president of science and technology and president of the Advanced Health Care Division of Avadyne, Inc. During World War H, he served as captain in the U.S. Army. Dr. Nesheim has served on the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board, currently chairing the Committee on Military Nutrition Research and formerly chairing the Committee on Food Consumption Patterns and serving as a member of several other committees. He also was active in the Biosciences Information Service (as board chairman), American Medical Association, American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and Food Reviews International editorial board. Dr. Nesheim's academic services included professor and head of the Department of Animal Science at the University of Illinois, Urbana.

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance He is a follow of the American Institute of Nutrition and American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of several professional organizations. Dr. Nesheim holds a B.S. in agriculture, an M.S. in animal science, and a Ph.D. in nutrition and animal science from the University of Illinois. JOHN E. VANDERVEEN (Chair) is the former director of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages in Washington, D.C. His previous position at the FDA was director of the Division of Nutrition at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. He also served in various capacities at the U.S. Air Force (USAF) School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. He has received accolades for service from the FDA and the USAF. Dr. Vanderveen is a member of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Institute of Nutrition, Aerospace Medical Association, American Dairy Science Association, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Chemical Society. In the past, he was the treasurer of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and a member of the Institute of Food Technology, National Academy of Sciences Advisory Committee. Dr. Vanderveen holds a B.S. in agriculture from Rutgers University in New Jersey and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of New Hampshire. LAWRENCE E. ARMSTRONG is an associate professor of exercise science at the University of Connecticut. He has joint appointments in the Department of Physiology and Neurobiology and the Department of Nutritional Sciences. Dr. Armstrong received his Ph.D. in human bioenergetics—exercise physiology from Ball State University. His research interests include thermoregulation, fluid-electrolyte balance, energy metabolism, exercise physiology, and the human heat illnesses. He previously served as a research physiologist at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine and a member of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology and the Aerospace Medical Association. WILLIAM R. BEISEL is adjunct professor in the Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. He held several positions at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, including in turn, chief of the Physical Sciences Division, scientific adviser, and deputy for science. He then became special assistant for biotechnology to the Surgeon General. After serving in the U.S. military during the Korean War, Dr. Beisel was the chief of medicine at the U.S. Army Hospital in Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri, before becoming the chief of the Department of Metabolism at the Walter Reed Army Hospital. He was awarded a Commendation Ribbon, Bronze Star for the Korean War, Heft Gold Medal at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, B.L. Cohen Award of the American Society for Microbiology, the

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Robert Herman Award from the American Association for Clinical Nutrition, and Department of Army Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service. He was named a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Physicians. In addition to his many professional memberships, Dr. Beisel is a contributing editor to Clinical Nutrition and an associate editor of the Journal of Nutritional Immunology. He received his A.B. from Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and M.D. from the Indiana University School of Medicine. GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD is director of nutrition research for Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System in California. Concurrently, she is lecturer in the Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School; visiting assistant professor in the Program of Human Biology, Stanford University; and director of nutrition in the Program in Sports Medicine, Stanford University Medical School. Her previous academic appointments were at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Butterfield belongs to the American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Physiological Society. As a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), she serves as chair of the Pronouncements Committee and is on the Board of Trustees; she also was president and executive director of the Southwest Chapter of that organization. She is a member of the Respiratory and Applied Physiology Study Section of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and is on the editorial boards of the following journals: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Health and Fitness Journal of ACSM, Canadian Journal of Clinical Sports Medicine , and International Journal of Sports Nutrition. Dr. Butterfield received her A.B. in biological sciences, M.A. in anatomy, and M.S. and Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley. Her current research interests include nutrition in exercise, effect of growth factors on protein metabolism in the elderly, and metabolic fuel use in women exposed to high altitude. WANDA L. CHENOWETH is professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University. Previously she held positions as teaching associate at the University of Iowa and University of California, Berkeley. Other work experience includes positions as research dietitian and head clinical dietitian at University of Iowa Hospitals and as research dietitian at Mayo Clinic. She is a member of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences, American Dietetic Association, and Institute of Food Technology. She serves as a reviewer for several journals, including the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Journal of Nutrition, and is a member of the Associate Editorial Board of Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. She has served on a technical review committee for the Diet, Nutrition, and Cancer Program of the National Cancer

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Institute and as a site evaluator, Commission on Evaluation of Dietetic Education of the American Dietetic Association. Her research interests are in the areas of mineral bioavailability and clinical nutrition. Dr. Chenoweth completed a B.S. in dietetics from the University of Iowa, dietetic internship and M.S. in nutrition at the University of Iowa, and Ph.D. in nutrition at the University of California, Berkeley. JOHN D. FERNSTROM is professor of psychiatry, pharmacology, and behavioral neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and director of the Basic Neuroendocrinology Program at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. He received his B.S. in biology and his Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). He was a postdoctoral fellow in neuroendocrinology at the Roche Institute for Molecular Biology in Nutley, New Jersey. Before coming to the University of Pittsburgh, Dr. Fernstrom was an assistant and then associate professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at MIT. He has served on numerous governmental advisory committees. He presently is a member of the National Advisory Council of the Monell Chemical Senses Center, chairman of the Neurosciences Section of the American Society for Nutritional Sciences (ASNS), and a member of the ASNS Council. He is a member of numerous professional societies, including the American Institute of Nutrition, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the American Physiological Society, the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the American Society for Neurochemistry, the Society for Neuroscience, and the Endocrine Society. Among other awards, Dr. Fernstrom received the Mead-Johnson Award of the American Institute of Nutrition, a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, a Wellcome Visiting Professorship in the Basic Medical Sciences, and an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Neurochemistry. His current major research interest concerns the influence of the diet and drugs on the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. G. RICHARD JANSEN (through August 31, 1997) is professor emeritus in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Colorado State University, where he was head of the department from 1969 to 1990. He was a research fellow at the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research and senior research biochemist in the Electrochemical Department at E.I. DuPont de Nemours. Prior to his stint in private industry, he served in the U.S. Air Force. Dr. Jansen is a past member of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Board of Scientific Counselors and of the editorial boards of the Journal of Nutrition, Nutrition Reports International, and Plant Foods for Human Nutrition . His research interests deal with protein-energy relationships during lactation and new foods for developing countries based on low-cost extrusion cooking. He received the Babcock-Hart Award of the Institute of Food

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Technologists (IFT) and a Certificate of Merit from the USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development for his work on low-cost extrusion cooking; he is also an IFT fellow. Dr. Jansen is a member of the American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology among others. Dr. Jansen holds a B.A. in chemistry and Ph.D. in biochemistry from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. ROBIN B. KANAREK is professor of psychology and adjunct professor of nutrition at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, where she also is the chair of the Department of Psychology. Her prior experience includes research fellow, Division of Endocrinology, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Medicine, and research fellow in nutrition at Harvard University. In addition to reviewing for several journals, including Science, Brain Research Bulletin, Journal of Nutrition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Annals of Internal Medicine, she is a member of the editorial boards of Physiology and Behavior and the Tuffs Diet and Nutrition Newsletter and is a past editor-in-chief of Nutrition and Behavior. Dr. Kanarek has served on ad hoc review committees for the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and USDA nutrition research, as well as the Member Program Committee of the Eastern Psychological Associations She is a fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and her other professional memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, and Society for Neurosciences. Dr. Kanarek received a B.A. in biology from Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in psychology from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. ORVILLE A. LEVANDER is research leader for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Requirements and Functions Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. He was research chemist at the USDA's Human Nutrition Research Center, resident fellow in biochemistry at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, and research associate at Harvard University's School of Public Health. Dr. Levander served on the Food and Nutrition Board's Committee on Dietary Allowances. He also served on panels of the National Research Council's Committee on Animal Nutrition and Committee on the Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants. He was a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Nutrition Scientists and temporary adviser to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Environmental Health Criteria Document on Selenium. Dr. Levander was awarded the Osborne and Mendel Award for the American Institute of Nutrition. His society memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, American Chemical Society, and American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Dr. Levander received his

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance B.A. from Cornell University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. ESTHER STERNBERG is chief of the Section on Neuroendocrine Immunology and Behavior and associate branch chief of the Clinical Neuroendocrinology Branch of the National Institutes of Mental Health Intramural Research Program at the National Institute of Health (NIH). Dr. Sternberg received her M.D. degree and trained in rheumatology at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. She did postdoctoral training at Washington University, Barnes Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, in the Division of Allergy and Immunology. She was subsequently a Howard Hughes associate and instructor in medicine at Washington University and Barnes Hospital before joining NIH. Dr. Sternberg is internationally recognized for her ground-breaking discoveries in the area of central nervous system-immune system interactions. She has received the Arthritis Foundation William R. Felts Award for Excellence in Rheumatology Research Publications, has been awarded the Public Health Service Superior Service Award, and has been elected to the American Society for Clinical Investigation in recognition of this work. Dr. Sternberg is also internationally recognized as a foremost authority on the l-tryptophan eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (L-TRP-EMS). She was the first to describe this syndrome in relation to a similar drug 1-5-hydroxytryptophan, and published this landmark article in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1980. DOUGLAS W. WILMORE, the Frank Sawyer Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, is a senior staff scientist and surgeon at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Concurrently, he is also a consultant for the Dana-Farber Cancer Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, the Beth Israel—Deaconess Hospital, Wrentham State School, and Youville Hospital and Rehabilitation Center. Dr. Wilmore's main interests are related to metabolic and nutritional means to support critically ill patients and enhance recovery. His basic research has been applied to patients with thermal and accidental injury, patients with infectious complications, and those with multiple organ failure. He worked with the team that developed the current method of intravenous nutrition used for patients throughout the world. This technique has been improved in Dr. Wilmore's laboratory: new amine acid solutions have been developed utilizing the amine acid glutamine, and anabolic factors such as growth hormone have been incorporated in this new feeding program with dramatic therapeutic results. Dr. Wilmore serves on the Advisory Board of the Tufts Pediatric Trauma Center; the International Editorial Committee of the Chinese Nutritional Sciences Journal; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; and the editorial boards of Annals of Surgery and Journal of the American College of Surgeons. He is senior editor of Scientific American Surgery, the surgical text published by the American College of Surgeons that serves as the basis for care of general surgical patients. He also has published more than 300

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance scientific papers and 4 books. Among his professional memberships, Dr. Wilmore includes the American College of Surgeons, American Surgical Association, American Medical Association, Society of University Surgeons, and American Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition. He holds a B.A. and an honorary Ph.D. from Washburn University of Topeka, an M.D. from the University of Kansas School of Medicine in Kansas City, and an honorary M.S. from Harvard University. JOHANNA T. DWYER (FNB Liaison) is the director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Center at New England Medical Center, professor of medicine and community health at the Tuffs University School of Medicine, and professor of nutrition at Tuffs University School of Nutrition in Boston. She is also senior scientist at the Jean Mayer/USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts. Dr. Dwyer is the author or coauthor of more than 100 research articles and 155 review articles published in scientific journals. Her work centers on life-cycle-related concerns such as the prevention of diet-related disease in children and adolescents and maximization of quality of life and health in the elderly. She also has a longstanding interest in vegetarian and other alternative life-styles. Dr. Dwyer is a past president of the American Institute of Nutrition, past secretary of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and past president and current fellow of the Society for Nutrition Education. She served on the Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association from 1959 to 1992 and is a member of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, the Technical Advisory Committee of the Nutrition Screening Initiative, and the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Wine and Food. As the Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow (1950-1981), she served on the personal staffs of Senator Richard Lugar (R-Indiana) and Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Maryland). Dr. Dwyer has received numerous honors and awards for her work in the field of nutrition, including the 1996 W.O. Atwater Award of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the J. Harvey Wiley Award from the Society for Nutrition Education. She gave the Lenna Frances Cooper Lecture at the annual meeting of the American Dietetic Association in 1990. Dr. Dwyer is currently on the editorial boards of Family Economics and Nutrition Review and the advisory board of Clinics in Applied Nutrition, and she is a contributing editor to Nutrition Reviews, as well as a reviewer for the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and American Journal of Public Health. She received her D.Sc. and M.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health, an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin, and her undergraduate degree with distinction from Cornell University.

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance SUBCOMMITTEE ON BODY COMPOSITION, NUTRITION, AND HEALTH OF MILITARY WOMEN BARBARA O. SCHNEEMAN (Chair) serves as dean, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, and professor of nutrition in the Departments of Nutrition and of Food Science and Technology and in the Division of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (School of Medicine), University of California, Davis. Her professional activities include membership on the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee; the Board of Trustees of the International Life Sciences Institute America; and the editorial boards of the Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and the Medicine, Food and Nutrition Series of Academic Press, Nutrition Reviews, Journal of Nutrition, and California Agriculture. Dr. Schneeman's professional honors include the Samuel Cate Prescott award for research, the Future Leader Award, and several honorary lectureships. She received her B.S. in food science and technology from the University of California, Davis; Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley; and postdoctoral training in gastrointestinal physiology at Children's Hospital in Oakland. Dr. Schneeman's research areas include fat absorption, complex carbohydrates, and gastrointestinal function, and she has a strong interest in and appreciation of nutritional issues that affect women throughout the life cycle. NANCY F. BUTTE is associate professor of pediatrics, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. She is a current member of the International Dietary Energy Consultancy Group Steering Committee, Executive Committee for the International Society for Research on Human Milk and Lactation, and Society for International Nutrition Research and a former member of the Institute of Medicine Subcommittee on Nutritional Status and Weight Gain during Pregnancy and of the Expert WHO Committee on Physical Status: The Use and Interpretation of Anthropometry. Dr. Butte received her B.S. in food and nutritional sciences, M.P.H. in public health nutrition, and Ph.D. in nutritional sciences from the University of California, Berkeley; she is a registered dietitian. Her research experience includes nutritional needs during pregnancy and lactation, including her current focus on military women. JOAN M. CONWAY is a research chemist with the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Diet and Human Performance Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland and a member of the graduate adjunct faculty, Department of Human Nutrition, University of Maryland, College Park. Dr. Conway has a B.A. in chemistry from St. Joseph's College in Brooklyn, New York, master's degree in science education from City College of New York, master's in human nutrition from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry and metabolism from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; she is a registered dietitian. Her research activities for USDA

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance include ethnic or racial influences on body composition, physical activity, and flee-living energy metabolism in women; body composition methodology; and stable isotope studies among Navy divers and other military Special Forces. Currently, she is a consultant at the Food and Nutrition Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in Rome, where she is facilitating the planning and execution of a proposed Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Vitamin and Minerals. STEVEN B. HEYMSFIELD is professor of medicine at Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York. He also currently serves as deputy director of the New York Obesity Research Center and is director of the Human Body Composition Laboratory. Dr. Heymsfield is immediate past president of the American Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and is an active member of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and the North American Society for the Study of Obesity. He was recently made an honorary member of the American Dietetic Association. He received his B.A. in chemistry from Hunter College of the City University of New York and his M.D. from Mr. Sinai School of Medicine. Dr. Heymsfield has done extensive research and has clinical experience in the areas of body composition, weight cycling, nutrition, and obesity, especially as they relate to women. ANNE LOOKER is senior research epidemiologist, National Center for Health Statistics, Division of Health Examination Statistics, where she serves as the center's expert consultant on calcium and iron status data for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. She is currently serving as director of research projects for the National Osteoporosis Foundation and is a member of the National Institute of Arthritis, Musculoskeletal, and Skin Diseases National Osteoporosis Data Group. Dr. Looker received a B.A. in zoology from Miami University, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in nutrition from the Pennsylvania State University; she is a registered dietitian. She has done work in areas that are of special concern to women, such as iron nutrition and osteoporosis. MARY Z. MAYS is currently the director of Eagle Creek Research Services, San Antonio, Texas. From 1993 to 1995, Dr. Mays served as the planner for science and technology Programs at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. Prior to this, she was the director of the Military Performance and Neuroscience Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (1990-1993). Dr. Mays earned a B.A. in psychology from Trinity College in San Antonio, Texas, and an M.S. and a Ph.D. in experimental psychology from the University of Oklahoma. Her research interests are focused on the influence of nutrition on cognitive performance.

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance MARITZA RUBIO-STIPEC is professor, Department of Economics, University of Puerto Rico. She is co-investigator/statistical consultant for a study of the psychiatric epidemiology of mental disorders in Puerto Rico; co-principal investigator/statistical consultant for a child psychiatry epidemiologic study in Puerto Rico; and principal investigator, of the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Diagnosis and Classification of Mental Disorders and Drug Related Problems. Ms. Rubio-Stipec earned her B.A. in economics from the University of Puerto Rico and M.A. in economics from New York University. She has an extensive background in study design, data analysis, epidemiology, and statistics. JANET C. KING (FNB Liaison) is director, U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center, Presidio of San Francisco, and professor in the Graduate School, University of California, Berkeley. Prior to her university experience, she worked for the U.S. Department of Defense. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and served as chair of the IOM's Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), and the Subcommittee on Nutrition Status and Weight Gain During Pregnancy. Dr. King received a B.S. in dietetics from Iowa State University and Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Berkeley; she is a registered dietitian. REBECCA B. COSTELLO (FNB Staff, through May 1998) is the former project director for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research and Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women. Prior to joining the FNB staff, she served as research associate and program director for the Risk Factor Reduction Center, a referral center for the detection, modification, and prevention of cardiovascular disease through dietary and/or drug interventions, at the Washington Adventist Hospital in Takoma Park, Maryland. She received her B.S. and M.S. in biology from the American University, Washington, D.C., and a Ph.D. in clinical nutrition from the University of Maryland at College Park. She has active membership in the American Institute of Nutrition, American College of Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology. Dr. Costello's areas of research interest include mineral nutrition, dietary intake methodology, and chronic disease epidemiology. MARY I. POOS (FNB Staff, Study Director) is project director for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR). She joined the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine in November 1997. She has been a project director for the National Academy of Sciences since 1990. Prior to officially joining the FNB staff, she served as a project director for the National Research Council's Board on Agriculture for more than seven years, two of which were spent on loan to the FNB. Her work with the FNB includes senior staff officer for the IOM report The Program of Research for Military Nursing

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance and study director for the reports A Review of the Department of Defense's Program for Breast Cancer Research and Vitamin C Fortification of Food Aid Commodities. Currently, she also serves as study director to the Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and directs the planning activities in global food and nutrition. While working with the Board on Agriculture, Dr. Poos was responsible for the Committee on Animal Nutrition and directed the production of seven reports in the Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals series, including a letter report to the commissioner of FDA concerning the importance of selenium in animal nutrition. Prior to joining the National Academy of Sciences she was consultant/owner of Nutrition Consulting Services of Greenfield,, Massachusetts; assistant professor in the Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst; and adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Animal Sciences, University of Vermont. She received her B.S. in biology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and a Ph.D. in animal sciences (nutrition/biochemistry) from the University of Kentucky; she completed a postdoctoral fellowship in the Department of Animal Sciences Area of Excellence Program at the University of Nebraska. Dr. Poos's areas of research interest include protein and nitrogen metabolism and nutrition-reproduction interactions. SYDNE J. NEWBERRY (FNB Staff) was the former program officer for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research and Subcommittee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women. She is currently employed at the University of California, Los Angeles School of Public Health/Center for Human Nutrition. Prior to joining the FNB staff, she served as project director for the Women's Health Project and adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Family Medicine, Wright State University School of Medicine; as a behavioral health educator for a hospital-based weight management program in Dayton, Ohio; and as a research associate at the Ohio State University Biotechnology Center. She received her B.A. from Brandeis University and her Ph.D. in nutritional biochemistry and metabolism from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; she completed an NIH postdoctoral fellowship in the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at Ohio State. Dr. Carlson-Newberry's areas of research interest include eating disorders and diabetes management. AUTHORS DENNIS M. BIER is professor of pediatrics, director of the USDA Children's Nutrition Research Center, and program director of the Pediatric Clinical Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine. He is also president of the International Pediatric Research Foundation, associate editor of the Annual Review of Nutrition, and chair of the USDA Human Studies Review Committee.

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Previously, Dr. Bier was professor of Pediatrics and Medicine at Washington University in St. Louis, where he was director of the Mass Spectrometry Facility and codirector of the Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Division. He has been editor-in-chief of Pediatric Research, chair of the NIH Nutrition Study Section, chair of the NIH General Clinical Research Center Committee, chair of the NIH/NICHD Expert Panel Five-Year Plan for Nutrition Research and Training, and president of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition. He also has served as a member of the various additional scientific advisory panels, including the HHS/USDA Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, the FNB, the FDA Food Advisory Committee, the Medical Science Advisory Board of the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation, the Steering Committee of the Pediatric Scientist Development Program, and the Advisory Board of the National Stable Isotopes Resource at Los Alamos National Laboratory. ALANA D. CLINE is a research dietitian in the Military Nutrition and Biochemistry Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), Natick, Massachusetts. She has been an Army dietitian for 25 years, assigned to a variety of military installations. Her graduate education includes an M.Ed. in nutrition education from Incarnate Word College, San Antonio, Texas, in 1982 and a Ph.D. in applied nutrition from Colorado State University, Fort Collins, in 1993. She currently is a member of the Department of Defense (DoD) Nutrition Committee, contributing toward the decision-making process that determines the DoD Strategic Plan for Nutrition Programs for all the military services. Her research interests include women's nutritional health issues, cardiovascular disease, and nutrition and performance. KARL E. FRIEDL is the research area manager for the Army Operational Medicine Research Program at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Maryland. Prior to this assignment, he was an Army research physiologist in the Occupational Physiology Division at USARIEM, where he specialized in physical and biochemical limits of prolonged, intensive military training. Previously, LTC Friedl worked in the Department of Clinical Investigation at Madigan Army Medical Center in Tacoma, Washington, performing studies in endocrine physiology. He received his Ph.D. in physiology in 1984 from the Institute of Environmental Stress at the University of California, Santa Barbara. HARRIS R. LIEBERMAN is deputy chief of the Military Nutrition and Biochemistry Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. Dr. Lieberman is an internationally recognized expert in the area of nutrition and behavior and has published more than 90 original, full-length papers in scientific journals and edited books. He has been an invited lecturer at numerous national and international conferences, government research laboratories, and universities. Dr. Lieberman received his

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Ph.D. in physiological psychology in 1977 from the University of Florida. Upon completing his graduate training he was awarded an NIH fellowship to conduct postdoctoral research at the Department of Psychology and Brain Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1980 he was appointed to the research staff at MIT and established an interdisciplinary research program in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences to examine the effects of various food constituents and drugs on human behavior and brain function. Key accomplishments of the laboratory included the development of appropriate methods for assessing the effects of food constituents and other subtle environmental factors on human brain function and the determination that specific foods and hormones reliably alter human performance. In 1990, Dr. Lieherman joined the civilian research staff of USARIEM where he has continued his work in nutrition and behavior. He has addressed the effects of various nutritional factors, diets, and environmental stress on animal and human performance, brain function, and behavior. His research program has focused on development and application of emerging technologies to sustaining and enhancing human performance. TIMOTHY J. MAHER is Sawyer Professor of Pharmaceutical Sciences and director of the Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, in addition to being on the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences. His area of research involves the investigation of the ability of amino acids and other dietary components to influence the neurochemical composition of the central nervous system and affect function in a pharmacological fashion. He served on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Life Science Research Office's ad hoc expert panels that investigated the safety of amino acids as dietary supplements and has analyzed the adverse reactions to monosodium glutamate for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. D. JOE MILLWARD is professor of nutrition and director of the Center for Nutrition and Food Safety at the University of Surrey in the United Kingdom. He trained as a biochemist, obtaining his initial degree and D.Sc. from the University of Wales and his Ph.D. from the University of the West Indies. He worked for many years with John Waterlow, initially at the Medical Research Council's (MRC's) Tropical Metabolism Research Unit in Jamaica and subsequently in the Department of Human Nutrition at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, as reader in nutritional biochemistry. He has taught nutrition and metabolism for more than 25 years. His research has focused on the regulation of protein metabolism and turnover, and the metabolic basis of protein and amino acid requirements. He is an editor of the American Journal of Physiology, British Journal of Nutrition, Nutrition Research Reviews, and Clinical Science.

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance K. SREEKUMARAN NAIR has been a professor of medicine and a consultant in endocrinology, metabolism and diabetes at Mayo Clinic and Foundation since 1994. He received his MBBS degree from the University of Kerala, India in 1993, an MD degree from New York State University in 1998, and a Ph.D. from the Council of National Academic Awards, London in 1984. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London and the American College of Physicians. He was elected in 1992 to the American Society of Clinical Investigation and in 1999 to the Association of Physicians. He served on NIH Metabolism and Aging Study sections and served on NASA Biological Review Panels. MICHAEL J. RENNIE is Symers Professor of Physiology, Department of Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Dundee. Dr. Rennie received his B.S. in biological chemistry/zoology from Hull, his M.S. from Manchester, and his Ph.D. from Glasgow. Dr. Rennie's major research interests are protein, amine acids, and metabolism. He has published more than 200 papers and chapters. He was head of the Department of Anatomy and Physiology at the University of Dundee; Wellcome senior lecturer, Department of Medicine, and lecturer in human metabolism at the University College London Medical School. Dr. Rennie is a member of MRC Physiological Medicine and Infections Board Grants Committee and chairman of the Committee of Heads of Department of Physiology for the United Kingdom. Dr. Rennie is also Honorary Secretary of the Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism Group of the Nutrition Society. His honors include the Arvid Wretlind Lecturer of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, recipient of the Rank Prize Funds Award, and fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Dr. Rennie is also the editor of the British Journal of Intensive Care and executive editor of the International Journal of Intensive Care. ANTON J. M. WAGENMAKERS studied chemistry (organic chemistry and biochemistry) in Nijmegen from 1972 to 1979. In 1984, he obtained the Ph.D. at the same university, where his Ph.D. thesis was ''Branched-Chain Amine Acid Degradation in Muscle." From 1984 until 1988, Dr. Wagenmakers was a senior research fellow of the Muscular Dystrophy Group of Great Britain in Liverpool. In 1988, he moved to the Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Maastricht University, where he was appointed an associate professor in 1996. Dr. Wagenmakers' main research interests are amine acid, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism in health (rest and exercise) and disease. He has long-standing (5-10 years) collaborations with international experts in stable isotope methodology (Professors D. Halliday and M. Rennie) and exercise physiology (Professor B. Saltin). Dr. Wagenmakers is scientific coordinator of the Stable Isotope Research Centre in Maastricht and, as such, occupies a central position in the metabolism- and nutrition-related research within several divisions of Nutrition and Toxicology Research Institute

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Maastricht. He is a member of the working groups on nutrition and diabetes and metabolism of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. He is an international expert in amino acid biochemistry and physiology and acts as a referee for many peer-reviewed journals (Journal of Physiology (UK), American Journal of Physiology, Journal of Applied Physiology, Biochimica Biophysica Acta, and Clinical Science). He acts as a peer reviewer for the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research and the Wellcome Trust in the United Kingdom and is a member of the external review committee of the Copenhagen Muscle Research Centre, Denmark, and of the Macronutrient Metabolism Group of the Nutrition Society in the United Kingdom. MACKENZIE WALSER received a B.A. from Yale in 1944 and an M.D. from Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1948. After residency training in medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, he joined the Department of Internal Medicine at Southwestern Medical School. He then served two years at the Naval Medical Research Institute in Bethesda, Maryland. From 1954 to 1957, he was an investigator in the Renal and Electrolyte Section of the National Heart Institute. In 1957, he joined the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine with a secondary appointment in the Department of Medicine. He has chaired the local chapter of the American Association of University Professors, the Medical School Council, the Joint Committee on Clinical Investigation, the University-wide Invention Committee, and the Nutrition Advisory Committee. Dr. Walser received the Experimental Therapeutics Award of the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the Herman Award of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition, and the first Addis Award of the International Society for Renal Nutrition and Metabolism. Dr. Walser has served on editorial boards of the American Journal of Kidney Diseases, American Journal of Physiology, Calcified Tissue International, Clinical Nutrition, Clinical Science, Journal of Clinical Investigation, Kidney International, Mineral and Electrolyte Metabolism, International Yearbook of Nephrology, and Renal Physiology and Biochemistry. JOHN P. WARBER is a research dietitian assigned to the Military Nutrition and Biochemistry Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. He received his doctorate in public health nutrition in 1994 from Loma Linda University School of Public Health, Loma Linda, California. Upon completing his doctoral training, he was assigned to his current position for a postdoctoral utilization tour. LTC Warber has dual master of science degrees in nutrition and exercise physiology from the University of North Carolina. He is a member of the American Dietetic Association, maintains credentials as a certified health fitness instructor from the American College of Sports Medicine, and is a certified strength and conditioning specialist of the National Strength and Conditioning Association.

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Previously, he was assigned as part of the initial faculty and staff at the U.S. Army Soldier Physical Fitness School at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana (now relocated to Fort Benning, Georgia) where he held a dual position on the teaching faculty and training and doctrine staff. He later was assigned as fitness coordinator for the 4th Infantry Division, Fort Carson, Colorado. LTC Warber's research interests include nutrition monitoring, dietary assessment, and performance-enhancing nutritional aids. ROBERT R. WOLFE has been professor of surgery and nutritional biochemistry at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, and chief of metabolism at the Shriners Burns Institute since 1983. From 1976 to 1983 he was assistant and associate professor of surgery at Harvard Medical School and the Shriners Bums Institute, Boston. Dr. Wolfe has served as associate editor of the American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology, and Metabolism and as an editorial board member of several other journals. He has been a regular member of the Surgery, Anesthesiology, and Trauma Study Section and many other ad hoc study sections of the NIH, as well as a member of the Committee on Research Review of the American Diabetes Association. He has been an active member of the American Physiological Society and American Institute of Nutrition. Dr. Wolfe received a B.A. in biology from the University of California, Berkeley and a Ph.D. in biology from the University of California, Santa Barbara. VERNON R. YOUNG is a professor of nutritional biochemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and director of the Mass Spectrometry Facility, Shriners Bums Hospital, Boston. Dr. Young received a B.Sc. in agriculture from the University of Reading, United Kingdom, and a Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California, Davis. He later received a D.Sc. from the University of Reading for his research on various aspects of muscle and whole-body protein metabolism. Dr. Young has served as president of the American Institute of Nutrition (now American Society for Nutritional Sciences). He is a member of the Food and Nutrition Board, the American Society of Clinical Nutrition, and the Nutrition Society (UK). He has served on numerous editorial boards, including the Journal of Nutrition and the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. In 1990, Dr. Young was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and in 1993 to the Institute of Medicine. His research has focused mainly on human protein and amine acid metabolism and nutritional requirements. He is the recipient of numerous awards including the Mead-Johnson and Borden Awards from the ASNS, the McCollum Award from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition, the Rank PRIZE in Nutrition (UK), the Bristol-Myers Squibb/Mead Johnson Award for Excellence in Nutrition Research (U.S.) and the Danone International Prize for Nutrition (France). He also received an M.D. (honoris causa) from Uppsala University, Sweden.