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INDEX

Acute renal failure

protein intake enhancement of, 138, 144

See also Diseases and disorders;

Renal function

Adaptation

amino acid metabolism, adaptive component of, 180-184, 221-224

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), 111, 112, 113, 115, 121-122, 123, 124, 125, 244, 245

Age and aging

dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry models, influence of age, 272

glomerulosclerosis development role of, 144, 145, 146, 147

muscle mass changes over time, monitoring considerations, 273-275

protein Recommended Dietary Allowances by age group, 6, 37

sarcopenia of aging, muscle mass/function effects of, 48, 123-126

Alaska, 87, 98, 99-100

Amino acid metabolism

adaptive component of, 180-184, 221-224

diurnal cycling role in, 184-186, 224-225

energy-dependent processes of, 110-112

exercise and catabolism, 29-30, 244-247

exercise, endurance, and, 310-311

infection/injury effects on muscle transmembrane transport, 280-281

influences on, 199-202

physical activity and, 243, 244, 250-251

physical activity, increased, role of energy supply and, 244, 248-249

See also Amino acids (AA);

Indispensable amino acids (IAA);

Obligatory oxidative amino acid loss (OOL)

Amino acid requirements

animal data for composition/requirement patterns, 178

brain function and, 289-293

controversy over, 3-4, 25-28, 170-173

definition, inherent difficulties, 169-202



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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance INDEX Acute renal failure protein intake enhancement of, 138, 144 See also Diseases and disorders; Renal function Adaptation amino acid metabolism, adaptive component of, 180-184, 221-224 Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), 111, 112, 113, 115, 121-122, 123, 124, 125, 244, 245 Age and aging dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry models, influence of age, 272 glomerulosclerosis development role of, 144, 145, 146, 147 muscle mass changes over time, monitoring considerations, 273-275 protein Recommended Dietary Allowances by age group, 6, 37 sarcopenia of aging, muscle mass/function effects of, 48, 123-126 Alaska, 87, 98, 99-100 Amino acid metabolism adaptive component of, 180-184, 221-224 diurnal cycling role in, 184-186, 224-225 energy-dependent processes of, 110-112 exercise and catabolism, 29-30, 244-247 exercise, endurance, and, 310-311 infection/injury effects on muscle transmembrane transport, 280-281 influences on, 199-202 physical activity and, 243, 244, 250-251 physical activity, increased, role of energy supply and, 244, 248-249 See also Amino acids (AA); Indispensable amino acids (IAA); Obligatory oxidative amino acid loss (OOL) Amino acid requirements animal data for composition/requirement patterns, 178 brain function and, 289-293 controversy over, 3-4, 25-28, 170-173 definition, inherent difficulties, 169-202

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance estimation feasibility and necessity, 217-237 FAO/WHO/UNU requirements, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237 FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 24-28, 171 FAO/WHO/UNU values adjustment, 192-193 isotope, stable, use for estimating, considerations, 193-197, 232-234 military operations and, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 77-79 MIT Requirement Pattern proposal and physical activity, considerations , 235-237 MIT Requirement Pattern proposal, overview, 218-221 nitrogen balance use for estimating, limitations, 22-24, 186-202, 226-231 obligatory oxidative loss patterns, use for predicting, 175 Amino acids (AA), 19, 133, 160, 162 Army's interest in role of, 2-3, 20-21 blood-brain barrier, overview of, 290-293 central nervous system transport mechanisms for, 291 cognitive performance effects of military lightweight rations, field studies results, 301-303 functions of, 110, 111 intake adequacy, functional indicators of, 198-202 intake adequacy, protein turnover as indicator of, 198-199 intake of, metabolic studies of long-distance cyclists, 52 military limited-use operational rations, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87 neurotransmitter system products of, 292, 293 performance role of, 20 Amino acid supplements Army personnel use of, 39, 42 benefits/health risks of, 7-11, 39, 42-63 branched-chain amino acids, endurance performance and metabolism effects of, 53-54, 310, 312-317 branched-chain amino acids, possible benefits, 249 cognitive performance effects of, 8, 42-45 glutamine, endurance performance and metabolism effects of, 310, 317-320 immune function effects of, 9, 54-56 metabolism and performance effects of, rationale for, 309-322 military performance optimization using, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79-81 military personnel reported use, by gender/military specialty, 103-104 performance and, study considerations, 334 physical performance effects of, 10, 52-54 pregnancy effects of, 11, 62-63 safety of, 11, 13, 14, 61-63, 79-81, 332-334 tryptophan, and cognitive performance, 43-44 tyrosine, and cognitive performance, 44-45 See also Amino acids (AA); Food supplements; Indispensable amino acids (IAA); Protein supplements Aminotransferase branched-chain amino acid reaction with, interaction with tricarboxylic acid in muscle, 315-317 Ammonia branched-chain amino acids ingestion, effects on plasma concentrations/muscle production of, during exercise, 317 Anabolic hormones injuries/infection treatment with, effects of, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79 muscle protein effects of, 49-51, 125, 127, 128, 129 muscle protein metabolism, effects of following infection/injury, 281-282 See also Growth hormone (GH); Hormones; Insulin; Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Animal studies amino acid composition and requirement patterns for selected animal, data, 178 dogs, calcium clearance determinants for, 139, 140, 141 ileal indispensable amino acid losses, animal data, 180 obligatory metabolic demand pattern, animal data for, 175-180 protein-free diet, responses to, data on selected animals, 177 Anorexia infection/injury effects on whole body protein metabolism, 160 Antarctic walk across, protein turnover rates during, 36, 249 Anthropometry muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 45, 46, 258 , 259-261, 273-274 See also Measurement techniques Arginine, 13, 14 See also Amino acids (AA) Army Food and Nutrition Survey I, 97, 99, 103 Army Regulation 40-25 (AR 40-25), 95 Army Regulation 40-250 (AR 40-250), 102 Athletics Antarctic, walk across, protein turnover rates during, 36, 249 Boston Marathon and other athletes, endurance performance studies, 336 endurance athletes, amino acid/protein metabolism in, 310-312 overtrained athletes, glutamine plasma concentrations in, 318-319 overtraining syndrome, glutamine and immune function, 249-250 Tour de France cyclists, amino acid/protein metabolism in, 52, 311 Tour de France cyclists, glutamine plasma concentrations in, 318-319 Yale university athletes, reduced-protein diet study, 32, 201, 251 See also Physical activity ATP. See Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) Auditory Consonants Trigrams Recognition test, 336 Behavioral function. See Cognitive performance Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 45, 46, 258 , 259, 262-263, 264, 274 See also Measurement techniques Biological value (BV) plant proteins biological value in nitrogen balance trials, 190-192 Blood-brain barrier (BBB) nutritional status of brain, determination by, overview of, 290-293 See also Central nervous system (CNS) Body composition, 256, 258 infection/injury effects on, 160, 161 See also Body weight (BW); Skeletal muscle (SM); Visceral organs Body measurements. See Anthropometry Body weight (BW), 37, 161, 256 Bolivia U.S. military protein/energy intake studies, 40, 99, 101 Boston Marathon endurance performance studies, 336 Brain. See Blood-brain barrier (BBB); Central nervous system (CNS); Cognitive performance Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), 53, 54, 245, 246 aminotransferase reaction with, interaction with tricarboxylic acid cycle in muscle, 315-317 ammonia, plasma concentrations and muscle production of during exercise , 317 central fatigue theory and, 53-54, 312-313 endurance performance/metabolism effects of ingestion, studies results , 310, 313-315 supplementation of, possible benefits, 249 See also Amino acids (AA)

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Breastfeeding, 37, 39 protein military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 7, 39, 79 protein Recommended Dietary Allowance for, 6-7, 37, 39 See also Women Bursailleus, Jacques, 19, 109-110 Calcium clearance determinants, 139-142 protein supplementation and status of, 10, 60-61 renal stone disease and intake/excretion of, 138-143 Camp Carson, 96, 97 Camp Parks, California, 41, 99, 102 Carbohydrates (CHO), 58, 244, 248, 250 glycogen resynthesis following exercise, supplementation effects, 310, 320-322 military operational rations energy content, by ration type, 411 premenstrual syndrome management using supplements of, 335-336 Catabolic hormones muscle protein effects of, 52, 131 Catecholamines. See Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine Central fatigue theory branched-chain amino acids and, 53-54, 312-313 Central nervous system (CNS) amino acid/protein requirements and function of, 289-303 blood-brain barrier determination of nutritional status of, 290-293 stress and amino acids changes during field studies, effects on, 301-303 tryptophan/serotonin effects on brain function, 293-294, 296, 297 tyrosine/norepinephrine effects on brain function, 289, 290, 292, 297-300 See also Blood-brain barrier (BBB) Children preschool, indispensable amino acid requirement patterns, FAO/WHO/UNU , 171, 219 protein/indispensable amino acid requirements, FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 171 Chocolate Mountain Desert Gunnery Range, California, 98, 100 Choline dietary supplementation and endurance performance, 336 Cognitive performance amino acid changes in military lightweight rations, effects of, field studies results, 301-303 military limited-use operational rations, for optimal function, research needs, 86-87 military performance optimization, use of protein/amino acid supplements, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 13, 14, 79-81 protein/amino acid requirements, role in, 20, 289-303 protein/amino acid supplements effects on, 8, 42-45 protein intake timing, effects on, 57-58 stress and amino acid changes, effects on, 87, 298-300, 301-303, tryptophan/serotonin effects on, 43-44, 87, 289, 290, 292, 293-297 tyrosine/norepinephrine effects on, 44-45, 87, 289, 290, 292, 297-300 See also Physical performance Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR), 2, 3, 6, 8, 21, 35, 36, 54, 55, 61, 86, 87, 88, 110 endurance exercise, protein requirements in, conclusions/recommendations , 77, 78 injuries/infection effects of anabolic hormones treatment, conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79 operational rations and Military Recommended Dietary Allowance, conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 79 operational rations protein/energy content, conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79 pregnancy/lactation and protein Military Recommended Dietary Allowance,

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance conclusions/recommendations, 12, 14, 79 protein/amino acid requirements effects of military operational stressors, conclusions/recommendations, 11-12, 14, 77-79 protein/amino acid supplementation, safety of, conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79-81 protein/amino acid supplementation to optimize military performance, conclusions/recommendations, 13, 14, 79-81 Computerized tomography (CT), 266, 267 muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 46, 47-48, 258, 259, 268-269, 274 See also Imaging methods; Measurement techniques Cortisol, 131, 133 See also Catabolic hormones; Hormones Creatinine (Cr), 145, 146, 147 urinary metabolite muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview , 45, 46, 258, 259, 263, 265-267, 274 Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), 126 Defense Women's Health Research Program, 88 Demographics. See Age and aging; Children; Gender Depression. See Mood Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), 333 Diseases and disorders muscle protein degradation, altering conditions, 115 protein requirements effects of illness, 5, 20, 33-34, renal disease development, protein intake effects on, 137-147 See also Acute renal failure; Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS); Glomerulosclerosis; Infectious diseases and disorders; Injuries; Renal stone disease Diurnal cycling amino acid, indispensable, requirements and, 184-186, 224-225 Dopamine, 290, 292, 293 cognitive performance effects of, 297, 298 See also Neurotransmitters Drugs renal stone disease treatment, 143 Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 262, 263 muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 46, 47-48, 259, 269-272, 274-275 See also Measurement techniques Endurance branched-chain amino acids/tryptophan ingestion, effects on performance, studies results, 310, 313-315 choline dietary supplementation and performance, 336 exercise, endurance, and protein/amino acid metabolism, 310-311 exercise, endurance, and protein requirements, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 77, 78 glutamine ingestion, effects on performance, studies results, 310, 317-320 See also Physical performance Energy deficit of, protein/amino acid supplementation effects on, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79-81 intake of, metabolic studies of long-distance cyclists, 52 military operations protein requirements, energy intake effects, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 11, 14, 77, 78 military operational rations content of, by ration type, 94-95, 411 military operational rations content of, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79 military operational rations, historic intake of, World War II studies , 96-97 military operational rations, requirements of, determination, 102-103

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance physical activity increases, and interaction with protein metabolism , 244, 248-249 physical activity restriction of, effects on protein requirements, 4-5, 29-33 protein breakdown, costs of, 114-116 protein metabolism use of, energy-dependent processes associated with, 110-112 protein requirements and balance of, 31-33 proteins, regulatory, turnover, energy-dependent processes in, 114 protein synthesis and regulation, costs of, 112-114 Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome (EMS) L-tryptophan-associated, 294, 331-332, 335 Epinephrine, 131 cognitive performance effects of, 297 See also Catabolic hormones; Hormones; Neurotransmitters Exercise. See Athletics; Physical activity Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) amino acids as dietary supplements, study on safety, 332-334 Field operations protein intake studies, 38, 40-41 protein supplemental intake by personnel, overview, 93-104 rations amino acid changes, lightweight v. standard, cognitive performance effects, 301-303 rations, operational, protein/energy current intake, 97-102 rations, operational, protein/energy historic intake, World War II studies, 96-97 See also Military operations; Military personnel Fluid Doctrine, 13, 14, 81 Food Minnesota bread study, 191, 192, 231 North Carolina wheat study, 191-192, 231 See also Food and drug safety; Food supplements; Military rations; Plants and vegetation; Soybeans; Wheat Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 24, 25, 26, 27, 57, 170, 172, 173, 174, 175, 186, 192, 194, 195, 199 nitrogen balance use for estimating amino acid requirements, 186-202 protein/amino acid obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values , 171 protein/amino acid requirements, 3-4, 24-28, 171, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237 protein/amino acid requirements adjustment, 192-193 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 332, 334 "Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Supplements," 334 Food and drug safety amino acid supplements, toxicity of, 11, 61-63, 331, 332-334 protein/amino acid supplements safety, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 13, 14, 79-81 protein supplements, health risks of, 7-11, 39, 58-63 supplements, dietary, for enhancing performance, efficacy/safety considerations, 331-337 Food supplements choline, and endurance performance, 336 military training nutritional intervention for immune function, research needs, 88 performance enhancement using, efficacy/safety considerations, 331-337 premenstrual syndrome management using, 335-336 See also Amino acid supplements; Protein powders (PP); Protein supplements Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, 41, 98, 100 Fort Devens, Massachusetts, 40, 98, 100-101 Fort Jackson, South Carolina, 40, 99, 102 Fort Hood, Texas, 40, 99, 101-102 Fort Lewis, Washington, 40, 98, 100-101 Fort Polk, Louisiana, 98, 101, 103 Fort Riley, Kansas, 98, 100-101

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Fort Sam Houston, Texas, 41, 99, 102 Fractional synthesis rate (FSR), 125, 126, 130 Free fatty acids (FFA), 53, 312-313 Gender protein/amino acids supplemental use by military personnel, by sex , 103-104 protein Recommended Dietary Allowance by sex, 6, 37 Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 59, 139, 140, 144, 145, 147 Glomerulosclerosis aging and development of, 144, 145, 146, 147 protein intake and development of, 138, 144-147 See also Diseases and disorders; Renal function Glucagon, 131, 133 See also Catabolic hormones Glutamine endurance performance/metabolism effects of, 310, 317-320 glycogen resynthesis following exercise, supplementation effects, 310, 321-322 immune response effects of supplementation, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 13, 14 immune system, link to, 319-320 muscle concentrations during exercise, 244-246 overtraining syndrome and immune function, role of, 249-250 plasma concentrations of, 318-319 See also Amino acids (AA) Glycogen resynthesis following exercise, effects of amino acid/protein supplementation , 310, 320-322 Grains. See Plants and vegetation Growth hormone (GH), 50-51, 52 muscle protein effects of, 50-51, 125, 128-129, 133 muscle protein metabolism following infection/injury, effects of, 281 See also Anabolic hormones Hormones, 19, 20, infection/injury effects on whole body protein metabolism, regulators of, 161-162 muscle protein effects of, 127-131 See also Amino acids (AA); Anabolic hormones; Catabolic hormones; Growth hormone (GH); Insulin; In-sulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I); Sex steroids Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia, 98, 101, 103 Imaging methods muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 46, 47-48, 258, 259, 268-269, 274 See also Computerized tomography (CT); Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Measurement techniques Immune function amino acid supplementation effects on, 9, 13, 14, 54-56 glutamine, effects on, 319-320 glutamine, overtraining syndrome, and, 249-250 military training/stressors effects on, nutritional intervention research needs, 88 India Anura Kurpad, amino acid requirements studies, 234 Bangalore amino acid requirements studies, 223, 234 nitrogen loss studies, 223 St. John's Medical College, amino acid requirements studies, 223 Indispensable amino acids (IAA) composition/requirement patterns in, animal data, 178 ileal losses, animal data, 180 metabolic demand for, adaptive component, 180-184, 221-224 metabolic demand for, diurnal cycling role in, 184-186, 224-225 metabolic demand for, summary of, 186, 187 nitrogen balance use for estimating FAO requirement patterns in, 22-24, 186-202

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance obligatory metabolic demand pattern for, animal data for, 175-180 obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values, 171 plant proteins biological value in nitrogen balance trials, 190-192 protein-free diet, responses to, animal data, 177 protein quality issues, 56-57 requirements for, debate over, 3-4, 25-28, 170-173 requirements for, FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 24-28, 171 requirements for, FAO/WHO/UNU values adjustment, 192-193 requirements for, feasibility and necessity of estimates, 217-237 supplementation of, cognitive performance effects of, 8, 42-45 See also Amine acids (AA); Leucine; Lysine; Tryptophan; Tyrosine Infectious diseases and disorders anabolic hormones treatment, effects on, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79 muscle protein metabolism effects of, 20, 279-282 nitrogen loss/translocation following, 156, 158, 159-160 protein requirements effects of, 5, 20, 33-34 protein translocation during, regulators of, 160-162 whole body protein metabolism, effects of, 155-159 See also Diseases and disorders Injuries anabolic hormones treatment, effects on, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79 muscle protein metabolism effects of, 20, 279-282 nitrogen loss/translocation following, 156, 158, 159-160 protein requirements effects of, 5, 20, 33-34 protein translocation during, regulators of, 160-162 whole body protein metabolism, effects of, 155-159 Insulin infection/injury, and effects on muscle protein metabolism, 282 muscle protein effects of, 49-50, 125, 127-128, 133 See also Anabolic hormones Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), 20, 50-51, 52 muscle protein effects of, 50-51, 125, 128-129, 133 See also Anabolic hormones In vive neutron activation analysis (IVNA)/whole body counting muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 47, 258, 259 , 272-273, 275 See also Measurement techniques Japan nitrogen loss studies, 223 renal stone disease incidence, 138 women breast cancer incidence, relationship to diet, 334-335 Kidney. See Acute renal failure; Renal function; Renal stone disease Lactation. See Breastfeeding Large neutral amine acids (LNAA), 42, 43, 44, 335 See also Amino acids (AA); Tryptophan; Tyrosine Leucine, 219, 221-224, 225, 233, 234, 246 See also Amino acids (AA); Indispensable amino acids (IAA) Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO), 332-334 Luzon, Phillipines U.S. military personnel, protein intake studies, 96, 97 Lysine, 219, 221-224, 225, 233-234 nitrogen balance use for estimating requirements of, limitations, 226-231 Toronto Break Point stable isotope studies on, limitations of, 197-198 wheat flour content of, 229, 230 See also Amino acids (AA); Indispensable amino acids (IAA)

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 31, 260, 262, 267 muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 46, 47, 48, 258, 259, 268-269, 274 See also Imaging methods; Measurement techniques Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 25, 88, 175, 176, 189 , 194, 197, 199, 223 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Amino Acid Requirement Pattern (MIT-AARP), 26, 27, 170, 172-173, 229, 230, 231 FAO/WHO/UNU patterns comparison, 219 overview of, 218-221 physical activity and, considerations, 235-237 Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), 124, 126 Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE), 20-21, 36, 38, 86, 87 lightweight rations comparison, cognitive performance effects of amino acid changes, field studies results, 301-303 nutrient intake of, field study, 301 See also Military rations Measurement techniques descriptive methods, for muscle mass, 45-46 in vivo methods, for muscle mass, 46, 47, 258-275 model-based methods, for muscle mass, 46-48 See also Anthropometry; Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA); Computerized tomography (CT); Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); Imaging methods; In vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNA)/whole body counting; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Stable isotopes; Ultrasound; Urinary metabolites Medicine. See Drugs Metabolic demand (MD) amino acids, indispensable, adaptive component of, 180-184, 221-224 amino acids, indispensable, diurnal cycling role in, 184-186, 224-225 amino acids, indispensable, summary of, 186, 187 See also Amino acid metabolism; Obligatory metabolic demand (OMD); Protein metabolism Metabolism. See Amino acid metabolism; Metabolic demand (MD); Protein metabolism Methionine urinary excretion effects of, 141, 142 Methodology, 3 isotope, stable, amino acid requirements prediction using, limitations , 193-197 muscle mass/composition measurement, methods organization, 257-259 nitrogen balance studies, amino acid requirements prediction using, limitations , 186-192 protein requirements assessment, 22-24 Toronto Break Point stable isotope studies on phenylalanine/lysine, limitations of, 197-198 3-Methylhistidine urinary metabolite measurement of muscle mass/composition, 45, 46, 258, 259, 263, 265, 267, 274 Military operations protein/amino acids requirements during, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 77-79 protein/amino acids role in physiological optimization during, research needs, 85-89 protein/amino acid supplementation to optimize performance, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79-81 rations, limited-use, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87 rations protein/energy content, by ration type, 94-95, 411 rations protein/energy content, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 12-13, 14, 79 rations protein/energy current intake, 97-102 rations protein/energy historic intake, World War II studies, 96-97

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance rations protein/energy requirements, determination of, 102-103 rations protein Military Recommended Dietary Allowance, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79 stressors during, effects on protein requirements, 35-36 urea formation and recycling during, research needs, 89 Military personnel Army protein/amino acid supplements use, 39, 42 protein/amino acids supplement use, by gender/military specialty, 103-104 protein/energy historic ration intake, World War II studies, 96-97 protein/energy operational intake, recent studies, 98, 99-101 protein intake studies of, 38, 40-41 protein requirements effects of various stressors, 3-6 training and stress-induced changes in immune function, nutritional intervention research needs, 88 See also Field operations; Military operations; Military rations; Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA); Women in military; U.S. Air Force (USAF); U.S. Army; U.S. Army Rangers; U.S. Army Reserves; U.S. Marine Corps; U.S. Special Forces Military rations, 38 field/operational protein intake, overview, 93-104 garrison protein intake, overview, 93-104 limited-use, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs , 86-87 operational, protein/energy content, by ration type, 94-95, 411 operational, protein/energy content, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79 operational, protein/energy current intake in, 97-102 operational, protein/energy historic intake in, World War II studies , 96-97 operational, protein/energy requirements for, determination of, 102-103 operational, protein Military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79 protein requirements for, crucial questions, 250 protein supplemental intake, overview, 93-104 World War II studies of, overview of, 93-97, 102 See also Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE); Military personnel; Ration, Light Weight-30 (RLW-30) Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA), 35, 36, 37-39, 78, 79, 87, 100, 101 pregnancy/lactation, protein allowance, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 7, 12, 14, 39, 79 protein allowance for operational rations, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 6-7, 12, 14, 37-39, 79 See also Military personnel; Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Minnesota bread study, 191, 192, 231 Models and modeling, 46-48, 257, 258, 260, 265, 272 Mood tryptophan/serotonin effects on, 293-294, 296 Mulder, Gerardus Johannes, 19-20, 109-110 Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (NRDEC), 93-94 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), 191 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III), 37, 103 Naval Medical Research Institute, 87 Nephrolithiasis. See Renal stone disease Neurotransmitters, 19, 289, 290, 292, 293 See also Amino acids (AA); Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; Serotonin

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance NHANES III. See National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) Nitric oxide (NO), 55-56 Nitrogen, 225 balance of, use for estimating indispensable amino acid requirements, limitations, 22-24, 172, 186-202, 226-231 plant proteins biological value in nitrogen balance trials, 190-192 translocation/loss associated with infection/injury, 156, 157, 158 , 159-160, 161 See also Obligatory nitrogen loss (ONL) Norepinephrine, 290, 292, 293 cognitive performance effects of, 297-299 stress exposure and cognitive performance, effects of, 297-299 See also Neurotransmitters North Carolina wheat study, 191-192, 231 Nurses' Health Study, 61 Nutrients infection/injury effects on whole body protein metabolism, regulators of, 162 military standard field and lightweight ration groups, intakes of, 301 Nutrition brain status determination by blood-brain barrier, overview of, 290-293 intervention for immune function changes during military training/stresses, research needs, 88 muscle mass/function, implications of, 132 undernutrition and military lightweight rations, cognitive performance effects of amino acid changes, field studies results, 301-303 See also Amino acid metabolism; Amino acids (AA); Amino acid supplements; Energy; Food supplements; Metabolic demand (MD); Nutrients; Protein; Protein metabolism; Protein supplements Obligatory metabolic demand (OMD) animal data for pattern of, 175-180 obligatory oxidative losses and, 174-175 overview of, 173-174 protein/amino acids, overview of, 173-174 See also Amino acid metabolism; Metabolic demand (MD); Protein metabolism Obligatory nitrogen loss (ONL), 4, 170, 171, 172, 174, 175, 180 See also Amino acid metabolism; Nitrogen; Protein metabolism Obligatory oxidative amino acid loss (OOAL/OOL), 4, 170, 175, 176, 218, 219, 221, 223 amino acids requirements patterns, adjustment of FAO/WHO/UNU values for, 192-193 amino acids requirements patterns, prediction using, 175 FAO/WHO/UNU values for, 171 metabolic demands, obligatory, and, 174-175 See also Amino acid metabolism; Protein metabolism Pacific Islands U.S. military energy/protein intake studies, 96, 97 Phenylalanine, 128, 219 isotope, stable, estimates of requirement values, 232-233 nitrogen balance use for estimating requirements of, 227 Toronto Break Point stable isotope studies on, limitations of, 197-198 See also Amino acids (AA) Physical activity branched-chain amino acids ingestion effects during exercise, 53-54, 317 contractile activity, muscle protein turnover effects of, 30-31,244, 247-248 energy restriction and amino acid/protein requirements, 29-33 exercise and amino acid catabolism and, 29-30, 244-247 exercise effects of protein intake timing, 57-58

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance exercise, endurance, and amino acid/protein metabolism, 310-311 exercise, endurance, and protein requirements, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 77, 78 exercise, prolonged, plasma glutamine concentrations following, 318 glycogen resynthesis following exercise, effects of amine acid/protein supplementation, 310, 320-322 increased, energy supply and protein/ amine acid metabolism interactions in, 248-249 MIT amine acid requirement pattern and, considerations, 235-237 protein/amino acid requirements effects of high workload, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 77-79 protein/amino acid supplementation effects on performance during high workload, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79-81 protein metabolism/requirements and, 20, 243-244, 250-251 See also Athletics Physical performance branched-chain amine acids/tryptophan ingestion, endurance effects, studies results, 53-54, 310, 313-315 dietary supplements use to enhance, safety/efficacy considerations , 331-337 endurance exercise, protein/amino acid supplementation effects on, rationale for, 309-322 endurance performance and choline dietary supplementation, 336 military limited-use operational rations, for optimal function, research needs, 86-87 protein/amino acid supplementation effects on, 10, 52-54, 309-332 protein/amino acid supplementation to optimize military performance, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79-81 protein, dietary, and amine acids supplementation and, study considerations , 334 See also Cognitive performance; Endurance Plants and vegetation proteins in, biological value in nitrogen balance trials, 190-192 proteins in, potential benefits of, 57 See also Food; Soybeans; Wheat Plasma ammonia concentrations, branched-chain amine acids ingestion effects during exercise, 317 glutamine concentrations following prolonged exercise, 318 glutamine concentrations in over-trained athletes and Tour de France cyclists, 318-319 Population characteristics. See Age and aging; Gender Porsolt swim test, 299, 300 Pregnancy, 37, 39 amine acid/protein supplementation effects on, 62-63 protein Military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 7, 39, 79 protein Recommended Dietary Allowance for, 6-7, 37, 39 Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) dietary supplementation for management of, studies on, 335-336 Profile of Mood States (POMS), 295, 336 Progesterone. See Sex steroids Prophylactics. See Drugs Protein acute renal failure, intake role in, 138, 144 Army's interest in role of, 2-3, 20-21 calcium status and intake of, 10, 60-61 cognitive performance effects of changes during stress, 301-303 functions of, 110, 111 glomerulosclerosis development, intake role in, 138, 144-147 intake adequacy, functional indicators of, 198-202 intake of, metabolic studies of long-distance cyclists, 52 intake timing, effects on exercise and cognitive function, 57-58 military operational rations content, by ration type, 94-95, 411

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance military operational rations content, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 79 military operational rations current intake of, 97-102 military operational rations historic intake of, World War II studies , 96-97 military personnel intake of, recent studies, 38, 40-41 Military Recommended Dietary Allowance for, 6-7, 12, 14, 37-39 nonsecretory, targeting costs, 113 obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values, 171 origins of term, 19-20, 109-110 plant/legume sources of, potential benefits of, 57 plant versus animal sources of, efficacy/safety considerations, 334-335 quality of, issues, 56-57 Recommended Dietary Allowances for, 6-7, 37, 39 renal disease development, intake role in, 137-147 renal function, intake role in, 10, 59-60, 137-138 renal stone disease development, intake role in, 59-60, 138-143 secretory, targeting costs, 113 total body, distribution of, 256 urea formation and recycling of, research needs for military operations , 89 wheat flour content, 230 See also Amino acids (AA); Protein metabolism; Protein powders (PP); Protein requirements; Protein supplements Protein-digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS), 170, 172 Protein metabolism amino acid/protein supplements, effects on, rationale for, 309-322 anorexia response to infection/injury, 160 energy costs of breakdown/degradation, 114-116 energy costs of synthesis and regulation, 112-114 energy-dependent processes associated with, summary, 110-112 energy supply and, interactions during increased physical activity , 4-5, 29-33, 244, 248-249 environmental stresses influence on, 6, 20, 35-36 exercise, endurance, and, 310-311 hormonal response pattern following infection/injury, 161 hormones influence on, 20, 49-52 infection/injury effects on, overview of, 20, 155-159 muscle protein degradation, altering conditions, 115 muscle protein metabolism, hormonal interactions with, 49-52 muscle protein turnover effects of contractile activity, 30, 244, 247-248 nitrogen translocation following infection/injury, 157, 158, 159-160, 161 overview of, 21-22, 173-186 physical activity influence and, 20, 243-244, 250-251 translocation of following infection/injury, regulators of, 160-162 turnover, protein, as indicator of amino acid intake adequacy, limitations , 198-199 turnover, regulatory proteins, energy-dependent processes in, 114 urea formation/recycling during military operations, research needs , 89 Protein powders (PP) supplements use reported by military personnel, by gender/military specialty, 103-104 See also Food supplements; Protein supplements Protein requirements assessment methods for, 22-24 brain function and, 289-303 cognitive performance, effects of stress and, 298-300 conclusions/recommendations of CMNR on, 77-79 debate over, 3-4, 25-28, 170-173 endurance exercise and, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 77, 78 energy balance and, 11, 14, 31-33

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance environmental stresses influence on, 6, 20, 35-36 FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 24-28, 171 FAO/WHO/UNU values adjustment, 192-193 infection/injury/illness effects on, 5, 20, 33-34 military limited-use operational rations, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87 military women and, research needs, 88-89 obligatory oxidative amino acid loss pattern use to predict, 175 operational rations, determination for, 102-103 physical activity and, 4-5, 20, 29-33, 243-244, 250-251 stressors effects on, 3-6, 11-12, 38-36 Protein supplements amino acid/protein, effects on metabolism, rationale for, 309-322 Army personnel use of, 39, 42 cognitive performance effects of, 8, 42-45 benefits/health risks of, 7-11, 39, 49-63 hydrolysates, effects on glycogen re-synthesis following exercise, 310, 322 metabolism and performance effects of, rationale for, 309-322 military performance optimization, use for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12-13, 14, 79-81 military personnel reported use, by gender/military specialty, 103-104 muscle building, use for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 12, 14 performance and, study considerations, 334 physical performance effects of, 10, 52-54 plant versus animal sources of, efficacy of, 334-335 pregnancy, effects of high-protein diets and amino acid supplements , 11, 62-63 safety/efficacy considerations, 13, 14, 79-81, 334 timing of intake, effects, 57-58 See also Amino acid supplements; Food supplements; Protein; Protein powders (PP); Protein requirements Ration, Light Weight-30 (RLW-30) amino acid changes from standard rations, cognitive performance effects, field studies results, 301-303 nutrient intake of, field study, 301 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), 78, 94, 102, 173 pregnant/lactating women, protein allowance, 6-7, 37, 39, 71 protein allowance by age group and sex, 6, 37 protein requirements of FAO/WHO/UNU and, 24-28 See also Military Recommended Dietary Allowance (MRDA) Renal function disease development, protein intake effects on, 137-147 protein intake effects on, 10, 59-60, 137-138 See also Acute renal failure; Glomerulosclerosis Renal stone disease calcium clearance determinants, 139-142 calcium excretion and calcium-containing stones, 138-143 calcium intake and, 138 protein intake role in, 59-60, 138-143 treatment, prophylactic, 143 uric acid stones, 138, 143 urinary and excretion patterns in stone formers, 142-143 See also Diseases and disorders Reproductive diseases and disorders. See Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Research immune function changes during military training/stressors, nutritional intervention research needs, 88 injuries/infection effects of anabolic hormones treatment, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79 military limited-use operational rations for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance military operations and protein/amino acids role in physiological optimization, research needs, 85-89 military women's protein requirements, research needs, 88-89 urea formation and recycling, research needs for military operations , 89 Sarcopenia of aging. See Age and aging Serotonin cognitive performance role of, 43-44, 87, 290, 292, 293-297 See also Neurotransmitters Sex steroids muscle protein effects of, 125, 129-131 testosterone effects on muscle protein metabolism, 51, 282 Skeletal muscle (SM) aging effects on mass/function regulation, 123-126 ammonia production of, branched-chain amino acids ingestion effects during exercise, 317 anabolic hormones effects on, 49-51 anabolic hormones effects on following injury/infection, 281-282 anthropometric prediction methods for, overview, 45-46, 258, 259-261, 273-274 bioelectric impedance analysis prediction of, methods overview, 45 , 46, 258, 259, 262-263, 264, 274 building, use of protein supplements for, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14 catabolic hormones effects on, 52, 131 descriptive measurement methods for, 45-46 dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry prediction of, methods overview, 46, 47-48, 259, 269-272, 274-275 endurance of, 49 glycogen resynthesis in following exercise, effects of amino acid/protein supplementation, 310, 320-322 growth hormone effects on, 128-129, 133, 281 hormonal effects on muscle protein, 127-131 imaging methods for predicting, overview, 46-47, 258, 259, 268-269 , 274 infection/injury effects on body composition, 160, 161 infection/injury effects on protein metabolism in, 279-281 insulin effects on, 127, 128, 133, 282 insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), effects on, 128-129, 133 in vivo neutron activation/whole body counting as predictors of, methods overview, 46, 258, 259, 272-273, 275 mass and function regulation, overview of, 48-49, 121-123 measurement of, methods overview, 45-48, 259-273 metabolism of, 49 model-based measurement methods for, 46-48 nitrogen translocation to visceral organs following infection/injury , 156, 159-160 protein degradation, altering conditions, 115 protein turnover effects of contractile activity, 30, 244, 247-248 strength of, 48-49 substrates and nutrition, implications for, 132 testosterone effects on, 282 time-related changes in mass and composition, monitoring considerations , 273-275 tricarboxylic acid cycle in muscle, branched-chain amino acid-aminotransferase reaction, interaction with, 315-317 ultrasound prediction of, methods overview, 45, 258, 259, 261-262, 273-274 urinary metabolites as indices of, methods overview, 45, 46, 258, 259, 263, 265, 274 Sodium sulfate calcium clearance role of, 140, 141, 143 Soybeans protein alternative sources, efficacy/safety considerations, 80, 334-335

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS), 88 See also U.S. Special Forces Stable isotopes amino acid, indispensable, requirement values, use for, 193-197, 232-234 Toronto Break Point studies on phenylalanine/lysine, limitations of, 197-198 See also Measurement techniques Stressors altitude, high, protein requirements effects of, 35-36, 101 immune function stress-induced alterations, nutritional intervention research needs, 88 protein/amino acid requirements and, cognitive performance effects , 86, 87, 289, 290 protein/amino acid requirements and military operational stressors, effects of, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 3-6, 35-36, 77-79 protein/amino acid supplementation to optimize military performance during, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 79-81 protein requirements, effects of, 3-6, 11-12, 20, 28-36 tyrosine role in effects on cognitive performance, 44-45, 87, 298-300 Stroop Task, 300 Substrates muscle mass/function, implications for, 132 Temperature cold stress and cognitive performance, tyrosine role in, 87, 298-299 cold stress, protein requirements effects of, 35-36 heat stress and cognitive performance, tyrosine role in, 300 heat stress, protein requirements effects of, 35 Thyroid hormone, 131 See also Catabolic hormones; Hormones Toronto Break Point studies phenylalanine/lysine stable isotope data, limitations of, 197-198 Total body nitrogen (TBN), 272, 273, 275 Total body potassium (TBK), 272, 273, 275 Tour de France, 52 cyclists, amino acid/protein metabolism during, 52, 311 cyclists, glutamine plasma concentrations in, 318-319 Tricarboxylic acid (TCA), 24, 53-54 branched-chain amino acid-aminotransferase reaction, interaction with in muscle, 315-317 Tryptophan cognitive performance/mood role of, 43-44, 87, 289, 290, 292, 293-297 endurance performance effects of ingestion, studies results, 310, 313-315 L-tryptophan, 331-332, 335 military lightweight rations changes in, cognitive performance effect of, 301-303 Tyrosine, 232-233 cognitive performance/brain function role of, 44-45, 87, 289, 290, 292, 297-300 military lightweight rations changes in, cognitive performance effect of, 301-303 stress response, role of, 87, 298-300 Ultrasound muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 45, 258, 259 , 261-262, 273-274 See also Measurement techniques United Nations University (UNU), 24, 25, 174, 175, 192 amino acid/protein obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values , 171 amino acid/protein requirement patterns of FAO/WHO/UNU, 3-4, 24-28 , 171, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237 Urinary excretion calcium clearance determinants, 139-142 protein/nitrogen loss following infection/injury, 157, 159

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The Role of Protein and Amino Acids in Sustaining and Enhancing Performance renal stone formers, patterns in, 138, 142-143 urea formation and recycling, research needs for military operations , 89 Urinary metabolites muscle mass/composition measurement, methods overview, 45, 46, 258 , 259, 263, 265-267, 274 See also Measurement techniques Urolithiasis. See Renal stone disease U.S. Air Force (USAF), 96 U.S. Army, 7, 39, 96, 97, 99, 100, 102, 104 Air Defense Artillery company, 103 Military Nutrition Division, 2 protein/amino acid requirement questions of, CMNR responses, 77-81 protein/amino acid supplements use by personnel, 39, 42 protein, dietary, and protein balance, interest in, 2-3, 20-21 Special Operations, 101 See also Natick Research, Development and Engineering Center (NRDEC) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), 2 U.S. Army Rangers, 20-21, 55, 86, 87, 88, 101, 103, 110 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), 20, 301 U.S. Army Reserves, 101 U.S. Army Surgeon General, 93 U.S. Marine Corps, 45, 87, 100 U.S. Military Academy (USMA), 61 U.S. Special Forces, 2, 39, 103 See also Special Forces Assessment and Selection (SFAS) Visceral organs infection/injury effects on body composition, 160, 161 nitrogen translocation from muscle mass following infection/injury , 156, 159-160 See also Body composition Visual Analog Mood Scale (VAMS), 295 Voit, Carl, 156, 186-187 Wheat amino acid diet restriction, animal studies, 179 flour amino acid/protein content, 229, 230 North Carolina wheat study, 191-192, 231 See also Plants and vegetation Whole body counting. See In vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNA) analysis/whole body counting Women college women nitrogen balance estimation of lysine requirements, 226 Japan women breast cancer incidence, relationship to diet, 334-335 See also Breastfeeding; Pregnancy; Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Women in military protein/amino acids supplemental use by, 103-104 protein/energy operational intakes, recent studies, 99, 101-102 protein intake studies, 38, 40-41 protein requirements, research needs, 88-89 World Health Organization (WHO), 24, 25, 26, 57, 174, 175, 192 amino acid/protein obligatory oxidative losses, FAO/WHO/UNU values , 171 amino acid/protein requirement patterns of FAO/WHO/UNU, 3-4, 24-28 , 171, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237 World War II, 37, 93, 138, 261 operational rations protein/energy recommendations during, 94, 102 operational rations protein/energy content, studies during, 94-95 operational rations protein/energy intake, studies during, 96-97