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estimation feasibility and necessity, 217-237

FAO/WHO/UNU requirements, 218, 219, 220, 229, 230, 231, 236, 237

FAO/WHO/UNU values, 3-4, 24-28, 171

FAO/WHO/UNU values adjustment, 192-193

isotope, stable, use for estimating, considerations, 193-197, 232-234

military operations and, CMNR conclusions/recommendations, 77-79

MIT Requirement Pattern proposal and physical activity, considerations , 235-237

MIT Requirement Pattern proposal, overview, 218-221

nitrogen balance use for estimating, limitations, 22-24, 186-202, 226-231

obligatory oxidative loss patterns, use for predicting, 175

Amino acids (AA), 19, 133, 160, 162

Army's interest in role of, 2-3, 20-21

blood-brain barrier, overview of, 290-293

central nervous system transport mechanisms for, 291

cognitive performance effects of military lightweight rations, field studies results, 301-303

functions of, 110, 111

intake adequacy, functional indicators of, 198-202

intake adequacy, protein turnover as indicator of, 198-199

intake of, metabolic studies of long-distance cyclists, 52

military limited-use operational rations, for optimal cognitive/physical function, research needs, 86-87

neurotransmitter system products of, 292, 293

performance role of, 20

Amino acid supplements

Army personnel use of, 39, 42

benefits/health risks of, 7-11, 39, 42-63

branched-chain amino acids, endurance performance and metabolism effects of, 53-54, 310, 312-317

branched-chain amino acids, possible benefits, 249

cognitive performance effects of, 8, 42-45

glutamine, endurance performance and metabolism effects of, 310, 317-320

immune function effects of, 9, 54-56

metabolism and performance effects of, rationale for, 309-322

military performance optimization using, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 79-81

military personnel reported use, by gender/military specialty, 103-104

performance and, study considerations, 334

physical performance effects of, 10, 52-54

pregnancy effects of, 11, 62-63

safety of, 11, 13, 14, 61-63, 79-81, 332-334

tryptophan, and cognitive performance, 43-44

tyrosine, and cognitive performance, 44-45

See also Amino acids (AA);

Food supplements;

Indispensable amino acids (IAA);

Protein supplements

Aminotransferase

branched-chain amino acid reaction with, interaction with tricarboxylic acid in muscle, 315-317

Ammonia

branched-chain amino acids ingestion, effects on plasma concentrations/muscle production of, during exercise, 317

Anabolic hormones

injuries/infection treatment with, effects of, CMNR conclusions/recommendations , 12, 14, 78, 79

muscle protein effects of, 49-51, 125, 127, 128, 129

muscle protein metabolism, effects of following infection/injury, 281-282

See also Growth hormone (GH);

Hormones;

Insulin;

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)



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