Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century:

Japanese and U.S. Perspectives

Report of a Joint Task Force of the National Research Council and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

Committee on Japan

Office of Japan Affairs

Office of International Affairs

National Research Council

Washington, D.C.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives Report of a Joint Task Force of the National Research Council and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Committee on Japan Office of Japan Affairs Office of International Affairs National Research Council Washington, D.C.

OCR for page R1
Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: J. Myron Atkin, Stanford University; Kent F. Hansen, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Frank Huband, American Society for Engineering Education; Takeo Kanade, Carnegie Mellon University; Milton Levenson, Bechtel International; Roland W. Schmitt, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (review coordinator); William Spooner, Creative Business Solutions Group; Michiyuki Ueonohara, NEC Corp. While the individuals listed above have provided constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the institution. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations that provided support for the project. This project was made possible with funding support from the United States-Japan Foundation and the National Academy of Engineering. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievement of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. International Standard Book Number 0-309-6588-7 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright © 1999 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives U.S.-Japan Joint Task Force on Engineering Education Mildred S. Dresselhaus (co-chair) Massachusetts Institute of Technology Eleanor Baum The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art George Bugliarello Polytechnic University Samuel C. Florman Kreisler Borg Florman Jeffrey Frey University of Maryland B. John Garrick PLG, Inc. (retired) Mark B. Myers Xerox Corp. Harold W. Stevenson University of Michigan Ex-officio Gerald P. Dinneen Massachusetts Institute of Technology (retired) Sogo Okamura (co-chair) Tokyo Denki University Kaneichiro Imai Engineering Academy of Japan Fumio Kodama University of Tokyo Yasukuni Kotaka NEC Corporation Shogo Nakamura Tokyo Denki University Minoru Nakayama Tokyo Institute of Technology Fujio Niwa National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Kenji Ogata Ando Electric Co. (retired) Hisao Oka Mitsubishi Electric Corporation Jiro Ohta Edogawa University Takashi Sakamoto National Institute of Multimedia Education Yasutaka Shimizu Tokyo Institute of Technology Yasuhara Suematu Kohchi Institute of Technology Seiichi Takeuchi Tokyo Denki University Ikuo Yamada Mitsubishi Research Institute

OCR for page R1
Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives COMMITTEE ON JAPAN Erich Bloch, Chairman Council on Competitiveness Richard J. Samuels, Vice-Chairman Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sherwood L. Boehlert U.S. House of Representatives Lewis M. Branscomb Harvard University G. Steven Burrill Burrill & Company Lawrence W. Clarkson The Boeing Co. Mildred S. Dresselhaus Massachusetts Institute of Technology David A. Duke Corning, Inc. (retired) Daniel J. Fink D. J. Fink Associates, Inc. John O. Haley University of Washington Jim F. Martin Rockwell Science Center Joseph A. Massey Dartmouth College Mike M. Mochizuki The Brookings Institution Hugh T. Patrick Columbia University John D. Rockefeller IV United States Senate Robert A. Scalapino University of California, Berkeley Susan C. Schwab University of Maryland Ex Officio Members: Harold K. Forsen, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering F. Sherwood Rowland, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences

OCR for page R1
Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives OFFICE OF JAPAN AFFAIRS Since 1985 the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering have engaged in a series of high-level discussions on advanced technology and the international environment with a counterpart group of Japanese scientists, engineers, and industrialists. One outcome of these discussions was a deepened understanding of the importance of promoting a more balanced two-way flow of people and information between the research and development systems in the two countries. Another result was a broader recognition of the need to address the science and technology policy issues increasingly central to a changing U.S.-Japan relationship. In 1987 the National Research Council, the operating arm of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, authorized first-year funding for a new Office of Japan Affairs (OJA). This program element of the Office of International Affairs was formally established in 1988. The primary objectives of OJA are to provide a resource to the Academy complex and the broader U.S. science and engineering communities for information on Japanese science and technology, to promote better working relationships between the technical communities in the two countries by developing a process of deepened dialogue on issues of mutual concern, and to address policy issues surrounding a changing U.S.-Japan science and technology relationship. Staff Thomas Arrison, Senior Program Officer Maki Fife, Program Officer

OCR for page R1
Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   4 2   K-12 TRAINING OF FUTURE ENGINEERS   6     Summary Points   6     Overview   6     General Features of K-12 Education in Japan and the United States   7     Issues and Challenges Related to Engineering Education   15 3   UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE ISSUES   24     Summary Points   24     Educational and Social Context   24     University Entrance Processes and Criteria   26     The Exam Preparation Process and Infrastructure   31     Issues   33     Priorities for the Future   35 4   UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE EDUCATION   37     Summary Points   37     Statistics and Background Information   37     Content   42     Accreditation and Control   44     Issues, Concerns, and Reform Efforts   44 5   LIFELONG LEARNING FOR ENGINEERS   48     Summary Points   48     U.S. and Japanese Context for Engineering Careers   48     Issues   59 6   MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBAL ENGINEERING   63     Summary Points   63     Why Engineers with Global Capabilities?   63     U.S. and Japanese Context for Developing and Utilizing Engineers with International Skills   64     U.S. and Japanese Perspectives on Global Engineering Tasks and Necessary Skills   69     Institutions and Resources for Preparing the Global Engineer in the United States and Japan   75

OCR for page R1
Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives 7   THE FUTURE UNIVERSITY   79     Summary   79     Context   79     Challenges for U.S. and Japanese Engineering Schools and Universities   79     Examples of Japanese Approaches   81     Examples of U.S. Approaches   82 8   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   85     Conclusions   85     Recommendations   86

OCR for page R1
Engineering Education Tasks for the New Century: Japanese and U.S. Perspectives This page in the original is blank.