36 Leaders of U.S. industry, academia, and government cited K-12 education as the most serious problem affecting U.S. competitiveness, (MIT Forum on Competitiveness, 1997).

37 National Research Council, Everybody Counts, op. cit., pp. 78–79.

38 National Research Council, National Science Education Standards, op. cit.

39 Although the federal government is not the primary source of support for primary and secondary education in the United States, federal investments in efforts to improve pre K-12 science, mathematics, engineering, and technology education totaled $770 million in 1993. See Committee on Education and Human Resources, Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering and Technology, The Federal Investment in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology Education: Where Now? What Next? (Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation, 1993).

40 National Science Board., op. cit.

41 The issue was featured in Kagaku Gijutsu-cho (Science and Technology Agency), Heisei Go Nenban Kagaku Gijutsu Hakusho, Wakamono to Kagaku Gijutsu (Science and Technology White Paper 1993: The Relationship Between Young People and Science and Technology), (Tokyo: Okurasho Insatsukyoku, 1993).

42 The Monbusho survey is summarized in U.S. National Science Foundation Tokyo Office, “Computers at Japanese Public Primary and Secondary Schools,” Report Memorandum 95-12, May 15, 1995.

43 Neil Gross, “A Game of Catch-Up,” Business Week, Annual special issue, 1994, p. 38.

44 For example, President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States, March 1997 and U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Teachers and Technology: Making the Connection (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995). In addition to exploring the issues related to using technology in the classroom setting and adequate training for teachers, one of the latter report's main areas of focus is how teachers can utilize technology to enhance professional growth and exchange.

45 A recent report calls for increased investment in technology for K-12 education in the United States. See President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology, op. cit. However some experts are skeptical that such investments would make a significant contribution, even if resources were available. See comments by Bruce Alberts and Wm. A. Wulf in National Research Council, Harnessing Science and Technology for America's Economic Future (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999).

46 See http://www.nae.edu for an overview of some of the issues and related initiatives of the National Academy of Engineering.

47 National Research Council, National Science Education Standards, op. cit.

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